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Two of ESSA’s most important requirements are that states (1) rate school quality and (2) identify low-performing schools to receive support. To evaluate the impact of these policies, All4Ed examined data from the first year of ESSA implementation in 10 states. Our analyses show the consequences for students When Equity Is Optional. States have used ESSA’s flexibility to take such varied approaches that students in low-performing schools—who are more likely to be students of color or from low-income families—have dramatically different odds of getting the supports and resources they need.