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Leveraging Innovations to Increase Educational Attainment


MDRC Webinar

Webinar:


Leveraging Innovations to Increase Educational Attainment

Participants
Robert Balfanz
, PhD, Principal Investigator and Researcher, Center for the Social Organization of Schools, Johns Hopkins University School of Education
Ronald Chaluisan, Vice President, New Visions for Public Schools
Mariana Haynes, PhD, Senior Fellow, Alliance for Excellent Education
David Johnson, PhD, Associate Director of Research and Development, Urban Education Institute
Scott Sargrad, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Policy and Strategic Initiatives, Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, U.S. Department of Education
Rebecca Unterman, Research Associate, MDRC

On March 11, 2015 the Alliance and MDRC held a webinar to discuss recent innovations in high school reform and facilitate a conversation among education leaders about the design of high-impact strategies to keep all students on the path to high school graduation and college and career readiness.

Rebecca Unterman and Ronald Chaluisan examined the design and impact of small public high schools in New York City, which MDRC’s ongoing evaluation finds increase high school graduation and college enrollment rates for almost all students served, including underserved students of color. Robert Balfanz and David Johnson discussed what matters most to ensure students are on-track to high school graduation and college readiness. Scott Sargrad discussed the implications for federal investments in high school improvement. Mariana Haynes moderated the discussion. Panelists also addressed questions submitted by webinar viewers from across the country.

Two presentations were made during the webinar.  To view them, click on the links below:

This event is made possible with support from

Carnegie Corporation of New York

>>> HELLO, I’M MARIANA HAYNES.

WELCOME AND THANK YOU FOR

JOINING THE ALLIANCE, A

NONPROFIT, NONPARTISAN EDUCATION

AND POLICY RESEARCH FIRM BASED

IN NEW YORK CITY.

TODAY’S WEBINAR ON LEVERAGING

INNOVATIONS TO INCREASE

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT BRINGS

TOGETHER THOSE TO DISCUSS

INNOVATIONS AND ONGOING SCHOOL

IMPLEMENT GRANT PROGRAM.

THEIR WORK HAS MADE AN ENORMOUS

CONTRIBUTION TO UNDERSTANDING

WHAT MATTERS MOST TO ENSURE

STUDENTS ARE ON TRACK TO HIGH

SCHOOL GRADUATION AND COLLEGE

READINESS.

IF YOU ARE ON TWITTER WE

ENCOURAGE YOU TO TWEET ABOUT

THIS WEBINAR.

THANKS TO CARNEGIE CORPORATION

FOR GENEROUS SUPPORT OF THIS

WEBINAR.

JOINING US IN THE STUDIO IS

REBECCA UNTERMAN, RESEARCH

ASSOCIATE FOR MDRC, DR. ROBERT

BALFANC, PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR

AND RESEARCHER AT THE CENTER FOR

SOCIAL ORGANIZATION OF SCHOOLS.

RONALD CHALUISAN AND SCOTT

SARGRAD IN THE U.S. DEPARTMENT

OF EDUCATION.

JOINING US BY PHONE FROM CHICAGO

IS DR. DAVID JOHNSON ASSOCIATE

DIRECTOR OF RESEARCH AND

DEVELOPMENT AT URBAN EDUCATION

INSTITUTE IN CHICAGO AND A

SENIOR RESEARCH ANALYST AT THE

UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO CONSORTIUM

OF CHICAGO SCHOOL RESEARCH.

THANKS TO ALL OF OUR GUESTS FOR

JOINING US TODAY.

WE ENCOURAGE YOU TO USE THE

FORUM TO SUBMIT QUESTIONS AND WE

WILL TURN TO QUESTIONS FROM TIME

TO TIME THROUGHOUT THE WEBINAR.

THERE HAS BEEN SOME GOOD NEWS

THIS YEAR.

THE UNITED STATES POSTED AN ON

TIME HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION RATE

OF 81%, THE HIGHEST LEVEL SINCE

STATES ADOPTED A NEW UNIFORM WAY

OF CALCULATING GRADUATION RATES.

STUDENTS CONTINUE TO FALL

THROUGH THE CRACKS EVERY DAY.

ONE IN FIVE FAILS TO GRADUATE

HIGH SCHOOL IN TIME.

MANY WHO DO EARN A DIPLOMA ARE

UNDER PREPARED.

TODAY’S COMPETITIVE GLOBAL

ECONOMY, SOME FORM OF POST

SECONDARY EDUCATION IS A

REQUIREMENT FOR CAREER PURSUITS

AND MORE THAN 3.1 MILLION JOBS

REMAINS UNFULFILLED.

GRADUATING STUDENTS CAN ADD

TRILLIONS TO ECONOMY, INCREASE

GRADUATION RATES WOULDAST $17.3

BILLION TO THE NATIONAL ECONOMY.

POLICY MAKERS AND PRACTITIONERS

CONTINUE TO GRAPPLE WITH

QUESTIONS ABOUT WHAT KNOWLEDGE

AND SKILLS STUDENTS NEED TO

SUCCEED IN HIGH SCHOOL AND

BEYOND.

YET THERE IS GOOD REASON FOR

INCREASED OPTIMISM.

THERE HAS BEEN EXPANSION ABOUT

WHAT MATTERS MOST FOR STUDENT

SUCCESS AND SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT.

THAT IS WHAT WE LEARN ABOUT

TODAY WHAT WE KNOW AND HOW WE

LEVERAGE THAT KNOWLEDGE.

AS STATES TRANSITION APPLYING

THE LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT HIGH

SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT WILL BE

CRITICAL.

TO BEGIN WE LOOK AT AN

INITIATIVE BEGUN IN NEW YORK

CITY IN 2002.

BEGINNING IN 2002 NEW YORK CITY

CLOSED MORE THAN 20 LARGE

FAILING HIGH SCHOOLS AND OPENED

MORE THAN 200 NEW HIGH SCHOOLS.

SO THE MOST RECENT MDRC REPORT

IN A SERIES OF RIGOROUS

EVALUATIONS SHOW INCREASED

GRADUATION RATES AND POST

SECONDARY ENROLLMENTS FOR

STUDENTS.

SO TO HELP US UNDERSTAND THE

MDRC FINDINGS AND IMPLICATIONS I

AM PLEASED TO WELCOME BECKY

UNTERMAN.

THIS IS A MONUMENTAL

UNDERTAKING.

>> THANKS FOR HAVING ME HERE.

SINCE 2010 MDRC RELEASED THREE

REPORTS DOCUMENTING EFFECTS ON

SCHOOLS OF CHOICE ON HIGH SCHOOL

GRADUATION RATE.

TODAY I SHARE FINDINGS WHICH

REPORTS THAT THERE IS A STRONG

POSITIVE EFFECT ON STUDENTS POST

SECONDARY ENROLLMENT.

FIRST WHAT ARE THE KEY FEATURES?

RYAN — RON WILL TALK ABOUT THIS

MORE BUT IT WAS CREATED ALONG

SIDE IMPLEMENTATION FOR ALL

RISING NINTH GRADERS.

BUILDING ON THE SMALL SCHOOL

TRADITION DATING BACK TO 1990s.

IN 1992 OVER 100 WERE CREATED

ACROSS THE CITY.

EACH SCHOOL HAD ITS OWN MISSION

AND ITS OWN FOUNDING TEAM.

THE FIRST IS THAT THEY ARE

ACCESSIBLE TO STUDENTS OF ALL

ACADEMIC ABILITIES.

THIS OCCURS BECAUSE IN THE

APPLICATION PROCESS THEY DO NOT

SCREEN STUDENTS BASED ON PRIOR

ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT LIKE MOST

OTHER SMALL SCHOOLS IN THE

DISTRICT.

THEY ARE SMALL IN SIZE SERVING

ROUGHLY 100 STUDENTS PER GRADE

AND SMALL IN FUNCTION BUILDING

IN THINGS LIKE ADVISORY

COMMITTEES AND FOSTER

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ADULTS AND

STUDENTS IN THE BUILDING.

THEY ARE CREATED IN A DEMANDED

BOTTOM UP PROPOSAL PROCESS

EMPHASIZING ACADEMIC RIGOR AND A

COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIP.

AND THIS COMPETITIVE APPLICATION

PROCESS WAS OVERSEEN BY A CORE

TEAM AND INCLUDED NEW YORK CITY

TEACHERS UNION, PRINCIPAL’S

UNION AND NEW YORK CITY

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION.

THE SCHOOLS ARE LOCATED IN SOME

OF THE MOST DISADVANTAGED

EDUCATIONALLY AND POVERTY

STRICKB AREAS OF NEW YORK CITY.

WHAT DID WE FIND?

FOR ENROLLEES MORE LIKELY TO

GRADUATE HIGH SCHOOL AND IN

DOING SO THEY OBTAIN A REGION

DIPLOMA WHICH IN NEW YORK STATE

IS THE STANDARD FOR HIGH SCHOOL

GRADUATION AND ARE MORE LIKELY

TO ENROLL IN POST SECONDARY

ACROSS A VARIETY OF LEVELS.

WHEN WE LOOK ACROSS IN SUBGROUPS

NEARLY EVERY STUDENT SUBGROUP

BENEFITS FROM ENROLLMENT

INCLUDING STUDENTS ENTER HIGH

SCHOOL PERFORMING BELOW GRADE

LEVEL IN MATH.

THESE ARE LARGE AND CONSISTENT

YEAR AFTER YEAR.

COST PER GRADUATE IS LOWER THAN

THE CONTROL GROUP COUNTER PART.

[ INAUDIBLE ] AND FEWER STUDENTS

RETURNED FOR A FIFTH YEAR.

AND WE STUDY THESE SCHOOLS USING

A LOTTERY BASED EXPERIMENTAL

RESEARCH DESIGN.

I WON’T GO INTO TOO MUCH DETAIL

BUT AS PART OF THE DISTRICT WIDE

CHOICE PROCESS WHEN IT IS

OVERSUBSCRIBED AN ALGORITHM

BREAKS TIES BETWEEN STUDENTS.

THIS COMPONENT — THIS PROCESS

CREATES TWO NEARLY IDENTICAL

SETS OF STUDENTS.

ONE GROUP OF LOTTERY WINNERS WHO

HAD AN OPPORTUNITY TO ENROLL AND

ANOTHER GROUP THAT GO ON AND

ENROLL ELSEWHERE IN THE DISTRICT

AT ANOTHER SCHOOL.

OUR STUDENTS IN OUR SAMPLE ARE

ON AVERAGE 83% QUALIFIED FOR

FREE/REDUCED PRICE LUNCH.

TWO-THIRDS ENTER HIGH SCHOOL

PERFORMING BELOW GRADE LEVEL AND

90% ARE BLACK OR HISPANIC.

WHEN STUDENTS DO NOT HAVE THE

OPPORTUNITY TO ATTEND ON AVERAGE

THEY ENROLL IN SCHOOLS THAT ARE

LARGER AND OLDER IN THE

DISTRICT.

NOW, LOOKING AT THIS FIRST TABLE

PRESENTS OUR KEY FINDINGS ON

HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION AND POST

SECONDARY ENROLLMENT.

LOOKING ACROSS THE FIRST ROW YOU

CAN SEE THAT 71.6% OF THE

STUDENTS THAT ENROLLED GRADUATED

HIGH SCHOOL AFTER FOUR YEARS

WHILE 62.2% OF THEIR CO-GROUP

COUNTER PARTS DID THE SAME.

THE DIFFERENCE IS THE IMPACT OF

ENROLLMENT.

IN THE TABLE YOU CAN SEE

STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE AT

THE .01 LEVEL.

LOOKING AT THIS TABLE YOU CAN

SEE AS I MENTIONED EARLIER THIS

IS BEING DRIVEN BY STUDENTS

OBTAINING REGIONS DIPLOMAS

[ INAUDIBLE ] OF 6.7 PERCENTAGE

POINTS.

AND THE SECOND PANEL PRESENTS

TWO MEASURES WE USE TO INDICATE

COLLEGE READINESS WHETHER

STUDENTS SCORED 75 OR ABOVE ON

THE ENGLISH AND MATH REGENTS

EXAM.

42% OF THE ENROLLEES SCORED

ABOVE THE 75 ON ENGLISH WHILE

35.8% CONTROL COUNTER PART SO

THE DIFFERENCE IS 6.3 PERCENTAGE

POINTS.

THERE IS NOT AN IMPACT ON

STUDENTS PERFORMING ABOVE THIS

LEVEL ON THEIR MATH EXAMS.

NOW, OUR NEW FINDING HERE IS

THAT 49% OF THE TARGET ENROLLEES

ENROLLED IN POST SECONDARY AFTER

GRADUATING HIGH SCHOOL IN FOUR

YEARS WHILE 40% OF THE CONTROL

GROUP COUNTER PARTS DID SO.

THIS IS IMPACT OF 8.4 PERCENTAGE

POINTS.

SO ALMOST ALL OF THE IMPACT ON

HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION WAS

SUSTAINED AS STUDENTS MOVED INTO

POST SECONDARY.

AND OUR NEXT TABLE WE LOOK AT

THE POST SECONDARY IMPACT ACROSS

STUDENT SUBGROUPS.

IN THE FIRST ROW YOU CAN SEE FOR

STUDENTS THAT ENTERED HIGH

SCHOOL QUALIFYING FOR FREE AND

REDUCED PRICE LUNCH 47% OF THE

TARGET ENTERED POST SECONDARY

WHEREAS 38.1% OF THEIR CONTROL

GROUP COUNTER PARTS DID SO.

THIS IS AN IMPACT OF 9.6

PERCENTAGE POINTS.

ON THE REST OF THE TABLE YOU CAN

SEE THE IMPACT IS SUSTAINED

ACROSS MANY STUDENT SUBGROUPS

NOTABLY THE IMPACT FOR BLACK

MALE STUDENTS IS 11.3 PERCENTAGE

POINTS AND THOSE WHO FULLY MET

STANDARDS AND PARTIALLY MET

STANDARDS.

FINALLY, WE ARE ABLE TO FOLLOW

ONE COHORT OF STUDENTS, THOSE

THAT ENTERED HIGH SCHOOL IN

2005-2006 THROUGH FOUR YEARS OF

POST SECONDARY.

LOOKING ACROSS THIS TABLE YOU

CAN SEE THAT OVER TIME THE

LEVELS OF POST SECONDARY

ENROLLMENT FOR BOTH TARGET AND

CONTROL GROUP COUNTER PARTS

DECREASED OVER TIME BUT THAT

OCCURRED FOR BOTH GROUPS AND THE

IMPACT, THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN

THEM WAS MAINTAINED.

NOW, WE DON’T HAVE DATA ON POST

SECONDARY DEGREE COMPLETION

AFTER FOUR YEARS.

WE HAVE IT AFTER 3 1/2 YEARS.

SO YOU CAN SEE HERE THE IMPACT

IS 1.4 PERCENTAGE POINT.

IT IS PROMISING BUT WE WON’T

KNOW ANYTHING UNTIL WE CAN

FOLLOW STUDENTS THROUGH FOUR

YEARS OF POST SECONDARY.

TO SUMMARIZE THE FINDINGS, SMALL

THEMES, HIGH SCHOOLS OF CHOICE

CAN BE EFFECTIVE REFORM

STRATEGY.

PARTICULARLY RELEVANT TO I THINK

THIS DISCUSSION TODAY I WOULD

LIKE TO ALSO BRIEFLY REVISIT

FINDINGS FROM A REPORT WE

RELEASED IN 2013.

WE WORKED AND INTERVIEWED 25

PRINCIPALS AND TEACHERS IN 25

EFFECTIVE SMALL SCHOOLS.

WE ASKED THEM WHAT FEATURES DO

YOU BELIEVE ARE MOST RESPONSIBLE

FOR EFFECTIVENESS AND WHAT DO

YOU BELIEVE ARE THE MOST SERIOUS

OBSTACLES TO CREATING AND

MAINTAINING EFFECTIVENESS OF

THESE?

IN INTERVIEWS PRINCIPALS

REPORTED THAT THE TEACHERS AND

DRIVE IN FLEXIBILITY OF THE

SCHOOL STAFF WAS MOST IMPORTANT

AS WELL AS THE PERSONAL

RELATIONSHIP THAT EXIST IN THE

BUILDINGS BETWEEN TEACHERS AND

BETWEEN TEACHERS AND STUDENTS.

AND FOCUS GROUPS RECEIVED THE

SAME THINGS IN ADDITION TO

CITING RELATIONSHIPS THEY

ADDRESS HIGH EXPECTATIONS.

THEY SAID THESE THINGS WORK

TOGETHER.

SO IN ORDER TO UNDERSTAND HOW TO

PUSH THEIR STUDENTS THEY NEEDED

TO HAVE CLOSE RELATIONSHIPS WITH

THEM AND BE ABLE TO KNOW EXACTLY

WHAT RESOURCES THEY NEED.

NOW, IN TERMS OF ONGOING

CHALLENGES, PRINCIPALS RECEIVE

DIMINISHING FINANCIAL RESOURCES

AS WELL AS MAINTAINING HIGH

ACADEMIC EXPECTATIONS YEAR AFTER

YEAR AFTER YEAR AS THEY KEEP

RECEIVING STUDENTS THAT ENTER

WITH PARTICULARLY LOW LEVELS OF

READING AND MATH.

TEACHERS PERCEIVE MUCH OF THE

SAME THING BUT NOTED IT IS

DIFFICULT IN A SMALL SCHOOL TO

REACT TO TURNOVER WHERE IN SMALL

SCHOOLS EVEN THOUGH THE RATE OF

TEACHER TURNOVER MIGHT BE THE

SAME, ONE TEACHER LEAVING MAKES

A BIG DIFFERENCE.

THANK YOU.

>> THANK YOU VERY MUCH.

>>> A LOT OF INFORMATION THERE

THAT WE ARE GOING TO GET INTO A

LITTLE BIT MORE.

THESE FINDINGS ARE IMPRESSIVE

NOT JUST BECAUSE THEY ARE

CONSISTENT BUT IN LIGHT OF THE

SCALE OF THE STUDIES, THE USE OF

REAL WORLD MEASURE OF COLLEGE

ENROLLMENT AND A DESIGN THAT

MEETS VERY HIGH STANDARDS OF

EVIDENCE.

THE OTHER PART IS THE COST

ANALYSIS.

IS THAT SOMETHING THAT CAN BE

DONE FOR STUDENTS WHO ENROLL AT

THE COLLEGE LEVEL TO DO SOME

SORT OF COST ANALYSIS FOR THOSE

WHO ARE PERSISTING?

IS THAT POSSIBLE OR FEASIBLE OR

IN THE PLANS TO LOOK AT THAT?

>> I THINK IT’S IN THE PLANS TO

LOOK AT IT.

>> NOT EASY.

>> YEAH, YEAH.

>> I THINK AS WE LOOK AT IT WE

WILL HAVE TO FIGURE OUT HOW TO

DO IT.

>> WANT TO FOLLOW UP ON THAT.

>>> SO NEXT WE ARE GOING TO TALK

WITH RON CHALUISAN, VICE

PRESIDENT OF NEW VISIONS FOR

PUBLIC SCHOOLS.

THIS IS 81 PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN NEW

YORK CITY SERVING MORE THAN

41,000 STUDENTS.

NEW VISIONS PLAYS A VERY

IMPORTANT ROLE AS PARTNERSHIP

SUPPORT ORGANIZATION TO MANY

SMALL HIGH SCHOOLS OF CHOICE.

WE ARE LOOKING TO YOU TO GO INTO

MORE DETAIL ABOUT WHAT THESE

SCHOOLS LOOK LIKE ON THE GROUND.

YOU HAVE BEEN AT THIS SINCE ITS

INCEPTION IN NEW YORK CITY IN

2002.

>> YES.

>> SO TALK ABOUT THE SPECIFIC

DESIGN, HOW YOU MONITOR PROGRESS

AND SOME OF THE KEY DRIVERS OF

CHANGE.

>> SO IN 2002 WE CAME TOGETHER

AND HAS BEEN IN HISTORY OF SMALL

SCHOOLS IN NEW YORK CITY.

WE STUDIED THAT CLOSELY.

THERE WERE A FEW DESIGN ELEMENTS

THAT WERE CRITICAL.

IT IS HEARTENING TO HEAR WHERE

SOME OF THE ELEMENTS COME FORTH

AS BEING VERY IMPORTANT.

SO WE REALLY STARTED WITH THIS

NOTION OF BEING FOCUSED ON

INSTRUCTIONAL LEADERSHIP AND

MOVING FROM OPERATIONS TO

LOOKING AT LEARNING AND TEACHING

WITHIN A SCHOOL.

AND THE WORK THAT THAT ENTAILED

AS FAR AS WHO THE LEADERS OF THE

SCHOOLS WERE.

THE OTHER PIECE WAS THAT IT WAS

A SMALL LEARNING COMMUNITY THAT

WAS BUILT ON HIGH EXPECTATIONS.

SO REALLY CONVINCING EDUCAORS

THAT WHAT IS POSSIBLE IS

POSSIBLE, WAS AN IMPORTANT PIECE

OF THE WORK AS WELL AS HAVING A

CLEAR FOCUS AND STRONG RIGOROUS

INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM.

WHAT IS INTERESTING IN

REFLECTING ON ALL OF THIS IS

THAT AS I THINK BACK ON THAT

THOSE WORDS ARE WORDS THAT ARE

USED QUITE OFTEN AND ARE FAIRLY

IN DEFINITION.

AT THAT POINT IN TIME THEY

REALLY WERE.

WE WERE LOOKING TO THE FIELD TO

DEFINE THOSE WORDS.

SO THERE WAS A BACK AND FORTH

BETWEEN US AND INTERMEDIATARY

ORGANIZATION AND GROUPS STARTING

SCHOOLS TO LOOK AT EVIDENCE OF

WHAT THEY MEANT WHEN THEY SAID

STRONG RIGOROUS PROGRAM OR

LEADERSHIP.

THE OTHER PIECE IS PERSONALIZED

LEARNING ENVIRONMENT.

THAT WAS TRUE FOR BOTH TEACHERS

AND FOR STUDENTS.

THIS NOTION THAT TEACHERS AND

STUDENTS NEEDED TO BE KNOWN WAS

AN IMPORTANT CONCEPT.

ADULTS WERE BEING ASKED TO WORK

ON TEAMS SO THEY HAD TO BE KNOWN

NOT ONLY AS TEACHERS BUT ALSO AS

LEARNERS.

WHAT WAS THE LEARNING STYLE?

HOW DID THEY GO ABOUT LEARNING

ABOUT LEARNING?

AND WHAT WERE THE SITUATIONS

THAT ALLOWED THAT KIND OF

LEARNING.

FOR STUDENTS IT WAS THE NOTION

OF HAVING VOICE.

WE INCORPORATED MANY YOUTH

DEVELOPMENT PRINCIPLES INTO THE

ORIGINAL DESIGN.

HAVING VOICED THOSE IN WHAT WAS

BEING LEARNED AS WELL AS HOW IT

WAS BEING LEARNED AND THE NOTION

OF PARTICIPATION THAT THAT

LEARNING WAS AN ACTIVE PROCESS.

IT WAS NOT A PASSIVE PROCESS.

SO THOSE ARE SOME KEY ELEMENTS.

AND THEN WE HAD A BIG COMPONENT

AROUND PARENTING AND COMMUNITY

ENGAGEMENT.

THERE WAS A SCHOOLS EXISTED

WITHIN COMMUNITIES AND

COMMUNITIES SHOULD AND COULD BE

INVESTED IN THE ONGOING LEARNING

OF THE STUDENTS AND THAT

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SCHOOL AND

COMMUNITY NEEDED TO BE VIBRANT

IN ORDER FOR THE SCHOOL TO HAVE

CHANCES OF SUCCESS.

WE REALLY JUST ORGANIZED AROUND

THESE PRINCIPLES AND LOOKED TO

THE FIELD OF PRACTITIONERS TO

START TO DEFINE THOSE THINGS.

AND WHAT WE TRY TO DO IS CREATE

A SYSTEM OF SCHOOLS, A COMMUNITY

OF SCHOOLS WHERE THE SHARING

WOULD HAPPEN.

WE QUICKLY REALIZED THAT THE

DATA SYSTEM THAT SCHOOLS HAD

AVAILABLE TO THEM WERE NOT

ADEQUATE.

THE DATA WAS LAGGING THE TIME

ELEMENT, THE INFORMATION THAT

THEY HAD FOR CLASSES WAS ONE OR

TWO YEARS BEHIND THE NOTION OF

REAL TIME, HOW ARE MY STUDENTS

DOING RIGHT NOW AND MY TEACHERS

DOING RIGHT NOW IS SOMETHING

EVERYONE WAS TRYING TO WORK ON.

SO WE ENDED UP FOCUSING QUITE A

BIT ON DATA AND THE NOTION THERE

WAS WHAT IS THE DATA NEEDED?

IF YOU REALLY WANT TO GET TO OUR

GOAL WHICH WAS ANOTHER IMPORTANT

PIECE WE MADE A FAIRLY AUDACIOUS

STATEMENT THAT WE WERE GOING TO

ACHIEVE AN 80% GRADUATION RATE

AND A 92% AVERAGE DAILY

ATTENDANCE RATE SO 80/92 FOR

SHORT AT A TIME WHEN IN THE CITY

THE GRADUATION RATE WAS

SOMEWHERE BELOW 60%.

SO MAKE THAT STATEMENT AND

SAYING HOW WE ARE GOING TO DO

THAT PUSHED US TO A PLACE WHERE

WE HAD TO ORGANIZE DATA SO THAT

SCHOOLS KNEW WHERE THEY STOOD

AGAINST THAT GOAL AND COULD MAP

OUT ROOTS TO GET TO THAT GOAL.

OVER THE LAST YEARS WE HAVE

MOVED THAT.

SO OUR CURRENT SCHOOLS ARE AT

ABOUT 73% GRADUATION RATE.

WE ARE NOT QUITE YET AT 80.

THAT IS A PHASE OF THE WORK AND

SOMETHING WE HAVE NOT YET GIVEN

UP.

I THINK SOME OF THE NEW WORK WE

ARE DOING WILL GIVE US A LEG UP

ON MOVING FROM 74 TO 80.

I THINK THE BIG SWITCH OF OUR

WORK HAS BEEN REALLY TRYING TO

GO FROM THIS BURDENSOME PROCESS

OF GATHERING DATA TO BEING

REALLY EFFICIENT IN THE

GATHERING OF DATA.

DECREASING TURN AROUND TIME FOR

SCHOOLS, WHAT DATA IS AVAILABLE

TO THEM AND HOW QUICKLY CAN WE

GET TO THEM.

THE NUMBER OF TIMES THAT THE

DATA IS AVAILABLE FOR SCHOOLS,

CONSOLIDATING IT INTO ONE PLACE

AND ALLOWING SCHOOLS TO REALLY

BE ABLE TO MANIPULATE THE DATA

EASILY SO THEY CAN ASK QUESTIONS

OF THE DATA AND CUSTOMIZE

RESPONSES TO THE NEEDS OF THE

SPECIFIC STUDENTS IN THEIR

SCHOOLS.

TO THAT END WE BUILT A NUMBER OF

TOOLS THAT HELP US TO DO THAT.

>> YOU HAVE BEEN ASKED THIS FOR

SOME TIME NOW.

WHAT HAVE YOU LEARNED ABOUT WHAT

IT TAKES TO CLOSE PERFORMANCE

GAPS PARTICULARLY WHERE THE BAR

HAS SHIFTED NOW AND NOT JUST A

FOCUS ON GRADUATION BUT GIVING

ACCESS TO STUDENTS WHO DO EARN A

DIPLOMA TO POST SECONDARY

EDUCATION?

HOW DO YOU DEAL WITH THESE

PERFORMANCE GAPS?

WHAT DO YOU FOCUS ON?

HOW DO YOU SIGNAL WHAT IS MOST

IMPORTANT WHEN YOU REFERENCE

DATA YOU COLLECT?

WHAT DO WE NEED TO BE PAYING

ATTENTION TO?

>> I THINK WE LOOK AT A NUMBER

OF DIFFERENT ELEMENTS.

ONE PIECE WE TALK ABOUT OR

DESCRIBE IT AS CORPS SYSTEMS.

WE ARE LOOKING AT ATTENDANCE,

STUDENT PROGRAMMING,

INTERVENTIONS AVAILABLE AND

GIVEN TO STUDENTS AND WE ARE

LOOKING AT IN NEW YORK CITY

CREDIT ACCUMULATION AND EXAMS

OBTAINING SPECIFIC SCORES ON

FIVE EXAMS.

WHAT WE FOUND WAS THAT SOME OF

THE SYSTEMS IN THE SCHOOLS WERE

IDIOSYNCRATIC.

TO THE SENSE THAT THERE IS A

WORK FLOW AND WE ARE ABLE TO

IDENTIFY THE WORK FLOW AND ABLE

TO GIVE INFORMATION, SPECIFIC

INFORMATION TO SCHOOLS WE HAVE

CREATED THESE SYSTEMS THAT ALLOW

US TO DO THAT IN A VERY

EFFICIENT WAY.

THAT IS THE DATA SYSTEM.

THERE IS A HUMAN SYSTEM THAT HAS

TO ACCOMPANY THAT.

SO THE CAPACITY TO ACTUALLY MAKE

USE OF THE DATA AND WHAT WE HAVE

DONE IS OVER THE VARIOUS YEARS

OF COACHING, THE INDIVIDUAL

COACHING THAT HAS HAPPENED AT

SCHOOLS, WE HAVE BEEN ABLE TO

DISTILL FROM THOSE COACHING

SESSIONS SOME VERY, VERY KEY

QUESTIONS THAT NEED TO BE MADE

OF THE DATA AND SPECIFIC TIMES

IN THE COURSE OF THE YEAR WHERE

THOSE QUESTIONS SHOULD BE ASKED.

SO WE RUN A SERIES OF STRUCTURED

CONVERSATIONS WITH SCHOOLS AND

WE USE A LOT OF THE TECHNOLOGY

THAT IS AVAILABLE TO US.

SO GOOGLE HANGOUTS MAKES IT

FAIRLY EASY IN DEALING WITH

DIFFERENT SCHOOLS.

BUT WE CREATE OPPORTUNITIES FOR

SCHOOLS TO SIT DOWN WITH THE

DATA IN FRONT OF THEM AND TO

QUERY THE DATA TO SEE HOW THEIR

STUDENTS ARE DOING AND WHETHER

OR NOT THERE IS AN

ORGANIZATIONAL RESPONSE TO THE

ISSUES THAT ARE COMING UP AS

OPPOSED TO AN INDIVIDUAL

RESPONSE.

SO IT’S OKAY THAT IN THE EARLY

DAYS AN ADVISER WAS ASKED TO DO

PHONE CALLS HOME, FOR EXAMPLE,

ON ATTENDANCE BUT IF YOU HAVE 24

ADVISERS OR 20 ADVISERS AS A

LEADER OF A SCHOOL WHAT IS THE

SYSTEM THAT ALLOWS YOU TO

AGGREGATE THAT INFORMATION AND

UNDERSTAND WHICH CALLS WERE MADE

AND WHAT THE RESPONSES WERE, HOW

YOU MIGHT ASSIST THE FAMILY IN

ADDRESSING THE ISSUE THAT IS

COMING UP FOR THAT STUDENT.

SO WE MOVED IN THE DIRECTION OF

CREATING THESE WORK FLOWS,

CREATING STRUCTURED

CONVERSATIONS WITH THE DATA

AVAILABLE.

SO THAT IS ONE.

I WOULD SAY THERE ANOTHER PART

WHICH IS REALLY AROUND

INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDANCE SYSTEM

WHICH IS RELATIVELY NEW WORK FOR

US AND REALLY DOCUMENTING AND

ORGANIZING CURRICULUM MATERIAL.

ONE OF THE BIG STRUGGLES IN

SCHOOLS IS CONTINUITY OF

CURRICULUM.

THERE IS THE CREATION OF AND

THEN CONTINUITY OF CURRICULUM

OFTEN HELD BY INDIVIDUAL

TEACHERS AND IF THERE IS TEACHER

TURNOVER MANY OF THE MATERIALS

LEAVE OR DIFFERENT TEACHERS HAVE

DIFFERENT MATERIAL.

ORGANIZING MATERIALS, HOUSING

THEM SO THAT THEY ARE ACCESSIBLE

TO THE TEACHERS AND THEN HELD ON

BY THE SCHOOL SO THERE IS

CONTINUITY IS AN IMPORTANT PIECE

OF IT.

ALSO THE ASSESSMENT PIECE OF

THAT CURRICULUM.

SO WE HAVE BEEN FORTUNATE ENOUGH

TO GET SOME FUNDING TO DO SOME

CURRICULUM WORK.

ONE PIECE OF WORK HAS BEEN IN

ALGEBRA AND LOOKING AT WHAT IS

THE SEQUENCE AND WHAT ARE KEY

MOMENTS OF ASSESSMENT?

WHAT MIGHT THOSE ASSESSMENTS

LOOK LIKE?

IF ALL GAVE THAT ASSESSMENT WHAT

WOULD WE LEARN AND HOW DOES THAT

IMPACT OUR WORK WITH TEACHERS IN

SUPPORTING THEM IN OTHER TO MEET

SOME OF THE BENCHMARKS THAT

BECKY WAS TALKING ABOUT

SPECIFICALLY WHERE THERE DIDN’T

SEEM TO BE EARLY IMPACT?

>> IT IS ALMOST LIKE THIS

CONCEPT OF PERSONALIZATION YOU

ARE LOOKING AT A SYSTEM IN ORDER

TO PERSONALIZE.

MORE STANDARDIZATION AROUND

CERTAIN AREAS SO THEY DON’T BURY

AND CAN DELIVER.

VERY INTERESTING EVOLUTION OF

WHAT THAT MEANS.

SO THANK YOU VERY MUCH.

IT WAS VERY HELPFUL.

>>> WE WILL TURN OUR ATTENTION

TO CHICAGO PUBLIC SCHOOLS WHICH

LAUNCHED AN INITIATIVE TO REDUCE

DROPOUT RATES I THINK STARTED IN

2007 BASED ON RESEARCH.

IT IS A PLEASURE TO WELCOME

DAVID JOHNSON WHO HAS BEEN

PATIENTLY WAITING ON THE PHONE.

THANK YOU, DAVID.

I’M NOT SURE ABOUT THE 2007 DATE

SO YOU WILL CORRECT ME, I HOPE,

IF THAT IS NOT CORRECT.

TELL US ABOUT THIS WORK OF

CONSORTIUM AND YOUR WORK WITH

THE URBAN EDUCATION INSTITUTE.

WHAT DOES RESEARCH TELL US ABOUT

ON TRACK INDICATORS AND WHAT

IMPACTS STUDENT PERFORMANCE AND

HOW DID CHICAGO PUBLIC SCHOOLS

USE THE FINDINGS?

>> THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR THE

OPPORTUNITY TO SHARE SOME OF

THIS WORK.

I WANT TO SAY AS I’M STARTING

OUT THAT IT IS STRIKING THE

DEGREE TO WHICH OUR EXPERIENCE

HERE IN CHICAGO PARALLELS WHAT

YOU ALREADY HAVE BEEN HEARING

FROM BECKY AND RON.

THE WORK IS REALLY SOMETHING

THAT WE HAVE BEEN TREMENDOUSLY

IMPRESSED BY AND FOLLOWED

CLOSELY AND THE PARALLELS ARE

REALLY KIND OF UNCANNY.

THE 2007 NUMBER IS NOT

INACCURATE BUT IT IS A PARTIAL

PIECE OF THE STORY.

I WILL GET TO SORT OF WHERE THAT

2007 YEAR FITS INTO THE LARGER

ARC OF THINKING ABOUT THE WORK

WE HAVE BEEN DOING IN CHICAGO.

I DO WANT TO SAY BEFORE I JUMP

INTO TALKING ABOUT THE

PARTICULAR RESEARCH AND THE

FINDINGS FROM IT THAT ALTHOUGH I

HAVE THE PRIVILEGE OF SHARING

SOME OF THE FINDINGS TODAY

THAT’S ACTUALLY WORK THAT I’M

PART OF THAT IS SHARED WITH A

NUMBER OF COLLEAGUES.

SO IN HOLDING UP THESE RESULTS I

WANT TO MAKE SURE THAT I HOLD UP

THOSE PEOPLE AND ACKNOWLEDGE

THAT THE WORK IS SHARED.

THESE REPORTS THAT I WILL TALK

ABOUT A LITTLE BIT TODAY ARE ALL

ONLINE AND AVAILABLE PUBLICALLY

SO FOLK WHOSE ARE INTERESTED IN

LEARNING MORE CAN CERTAINLY SEEK

THAT OUT.

THE NUMBERS IN TERMS OF HOW

SIMILAR THINGS ARE, HOW PARALLEL

THE STORIES ARE WITH NEW YORK

ARE REALLY VERY STRIKING.

I WILL START BACK AS FAR AS 1999

WHICH IS WHERE THE ON TRACK

INDICATOR REALLY BEGINS TO TAKE

SHAPE AS A RESEARCH IDEA.

THE GRADUATION RATE, HIGH SCHOOL

GRADUATION RATE IN CHICAGO IN

1999 WAS SOMETHING IN THE HIGH

40s, 47%, 48% DEPENDING WHO YOU

ASK.

AND THERE WERE ALL SORTS OF

QUESTIONS BOTH IN THE SORT OF

PUBLIC DISCOURSE AND WITHIN THE

SCHOOL DISTRICTS ABOUT HOW TO

IMPROVE THAT NUMBER, HOW TO MOVE

THAT GRADUATION RATE.

AND THE CONSORTIUM WHICH HAD A

STANDING RELATIONSHIP WITH THE

DISTRICT, A LOT OF WHICH FOCUSED

ON DATA SHARING AGREEMENTS WHICH

ALLOWED US TO PROVIDE ONGOING

RESEARCH TO THE DISTRICT AROUND

KEY QUESTIONS THE CONSORTIUM GOT

INTERESTED IN PART THROUGH AN

EXTURNAL PROVIDER IN DOING SOME

RESEARCH AROUND THE

EFFECTIVENESS OF PROGRAMMING IN

THE MIDDLE GRADES TO ADDRESS

HIGH SCHOOL READINESS.

THERE WAS A QUESTION ABOUT HOW

TIMELY COULD WE MAKE FEEDBACK.

RON’S POINT ABOUT LAGGING DATA

THAT SCHOOLS HAD AVAILABLE TO

THEM AND THE ABILITY OR

INABILITY OF SCHOOLS TO REFLECT

ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THEIR

PRACTICE WAS SORT OF AT THE

CORE.

CLOSING THE FEEDBACK LOOP WAS

SOMETHING THAT WAS AN IMPORTANT

PART OF THE STORY.

IT WASN’T SOMETHING I THINK WE

NECESSARILY UNDERSTOOD AT THE

TIME.

THE ON TRACK METRIC WAS CREATED

TO HELP AN ORGANIZATION WORKING

WITH MIDDLE SCHOOL STUDENTS

UNDERSTAND HOW WELL THE EIGHTH

GREAT GRADUATES WERE PERFORMING

IN HIGH SCHOOL.

THE ON TRACK INDICATOR IS A

RELATIVELY SIMPLE METRIC ON THE

PART OF ITS VIRTUE BUT ALSO A

REALLY IMPORTANT PART OF THE

STORY AROUND IT IS HOW AVAILABLE

THE INFORMATION ALREADY WAS.

WE DID A LOT OF WORK IN A

SIMILAR VEIN TO WHAT NEW VISIONS

HAS DONE IN TERMS OF MAKING THE

REPORTING OF THAT NUMBER EASIER

FOR SCHOOLS TO DIGEST AND WORK

ON AND THE DISTRICT DESERVES AN

ENORMOUS AMOUNT OF CREDIT HERE

IN CHICAGO FOR HAVING OWNED THAT

WORK.

I WILL TALK ABOUT THE TIMELINE

ON WHICH THAT HAPPENED.

A STUDENT IS DEFINED AS BEING ON

TRACK IN NINTH GRADE IF THEY

EARN FIVE OR MORE CREDITS.

THAT’S THE BASIC FOR EARNING

SOPHOMORE STANDING BY THE END OF

THE YEAR AND IF THEY HAVE NO

MORE THAN ONE SEMESTER FAILURE

IN A CORE COURSE.

WHAT WE FOUND VERY EARLY ON WAS

THAT STUDENTS WHO WERE ON TRACK

IN NINTH GRADE WERE FOUR TIMES

MORE LIKELY TO GRADUATE FROM

HIGH SCHOOL THREE YEARS LATER

THAN STUDENTS WHO WERE OFF

TRACK.

INITIALLY THAT TURNED OUT TO BE

AN IMPORTANT POINT OF ORGANIZING

FOR PEOPLE THINKING ABOUT HOW

THEY MIGHT DRIVE BETTER

PERFORMANCE ACROSS THAT

TRANSITION INTO HIGH SCHOOL.

WE HAD RESEARCH FROM A BUNCH OF

DIFFERENT DIRECTIONS, SOME OURS

AND SOME FROM OTHER

ORGANIZATIONS POINTING TO THE

IDEA THAT THE NINTH GRADE

TRANSITION PLAYED A CRITICAL

ROLE IN STUDENTS TRAJECTORY

THROUGH HIGH SCHOOL.

AS IT TURNED OUT GRADES WERE

RIGHT AT THE CORE OF WHAT WAS

DRIVING STUDENTS ON TRACK

STATUS, NOT SHOCKING WHEN

TALKING ABOUT CREDIT

ACCUMULATION AND COURSE FAILURE.

WE LEARNED EARLY ON THAT MORE

THAN 95% OF STUDENTS WHO EARNED

A B AVERAGE DURING NINTH GRADE

EVENTUALLY WERE GOING ON TO

GRADUATE AND THAT B AVERAGE

BECOMES REAL CRITICAL RALLYING

POINT IN RESEARCH WE HAVE DONE

MORE RECENTLY.

WE SEE THE SAME PATTERN NOW WITH

MIDDLE GRADE STUDENTS WHEN WE

THINK ABOUT INDICATORS OF

READINESS FOR STRONG PERFORMANCE

IN HIGH SCHOOL THAT B CONTINUES

TO BE A REAL TIPPING POINT.

WE ALSO SAW THAT STUDENTS WHO

HAD LESS THAN A C AVERAGE IN

NINTH GRADE WERE MORE LIKELY TO

DROP OUT THAN TO GRADUATE.

THOSE PIECES OF INFORMATION

TAKEN TOGETHER ABOUT GRADES

PROVIDED A REAL IMPORTANT TOE

HOLD FOR THE DISTRICT AND FOR

SCHOOLS SPECIFICALLY IN TERMS OF

TRYING TO THINK ABOUT HOW TO

GRAPPLE WITH WHAT COURSE FAILURE

MEANT AND SORT OF WHERE THE

LEVERAGE MIGHT BE FOR THEM IN

ATTACKING IT.

I THINK ALMOST AS IMPORTANT IF

NOT MORE IMPORTANT THAN THE IDEA

THAT GRADES WERE IMPORTANT TO

THIS INDICATOR AND TO GRADUATION

ULTIMATELY WAS THE IDEA THAT

ATTENDANCE WAS ALSO CRITICAL.

AND WE SAW A COUPLE OF THE

THINGS EARLY ON IN THE RESEARCH

THAT I THINK WERE REALLY

PIVOTAL.

ONE WAS THAT ATTENDANCE RATES

VARY SUBSTANTIALLY ACROSS HIGH

SCHOOLS IN THE DISTRICT.

AS IT TURNS THEY VARY

SUBSTANTIALLY ACROSS ELEMENTARY

SCHOOL.

THAT VARIATION SUGGESTED THAT

THERE WAS SOMETHING IMPORTANT TO

LEARN ABOUT SCHOOLS SERVING

SIMILAR CHILDREN AND PERFORMING

DIFFERENTLY.

THERE WERE THINGS WE COULD LEARN

AS RESEARCHERS AND EDUCATORS

COULD LEARN FROM EACH OTHER

ABOUT HOW TO DO BETTER BY

SIMILAR KIDS.

IT WAS CLEAR RIGHT FROM THE

BEGINNING THAT SOME SCHOOLS

FIGURED THINGS OUT ALREADY AND

OUR JOB BECAME IN PART TO MUCH

IN THE SAME WAY THAT RON WAS

DESCRIBING TO HAVE THOSE KINDS

OF CONVERSATIONS WITH

PRACTITIONERS WE WORKED CLOSELY

WITH A GROUP IN CHICAGO CALLED

NETWORK FOR COLLEGE SUCCESS

WHICH HAS SIMILAR ORIENTATION IN

A LOT OF WAYS.

RON’S POINT ABOUT MAKING

ORGANIZATIONAL AND NOT

INDIVIDUALS CHANGE AND DRIVING

STRUCTURED CONVERSATION AROUND

SPECIFIC DATA POINTS RESONATE

DEEPLY WITH THAT EXPERIENCE.

WE SAW THAT ATTENDANCE WORK IN

PARTICULAR REALLY TAKE OFF WHEN

SCHOOLS WERE ABLE TO OWN THAT

DATA, TO RECEIVE THAT

INFORMATION FROM THE DISTRICT IN

REAL TIME AND TO HAVE THOSE

STRUCTURED CONVERSATIONS

INTERNALLY BUT OFTEN FACILITATED

WHETHER BY SOMEONE FROM THE

NETWORK FOR COLLEGE SUCCESS OR A

STAFF OF PEOPLE WHOM THE

DISTRICT INCREASINGLY DEVELOPED

OVERTIME INTERNALLY.

WE SAW NEARLY 90% OF THE

FRESHMEN WHO WERE MISSING LESS

THAN A WEEK OF SCHOOL DURING

NINTH GRADE WERE GOING ON TO

GRADUATE REGARDLESS OF INCOMING

ACHIEVEMENT.

THERE IS A GRAPH THAT I INCLUDED

THAT REALLY GIVES A STARK

PICTURE OF HOW FAST THE DROP OFF

OCCURS IN TERMS OF YOUR

PROBABILITY OF GRADUATING EVEN

FOR RELATIVELY MINOR INCREMENTS

IN TERMS OF THE NUMBER OF DAYS A

STUDENT IS MISSING.

THAT INFORMATION IN PARTICULAR

REALLY MADE IT POSSIBLE FOR

SCHOOLS TO THINK ABOUT

INTERVENING AROUND ATTENDANCE IN

A STRUCTURED ONGOING WAY WITH A

BENCHMARK AND A SET OF MEASURES,

DAILY ATTENDANCE AND KIND OF

RIGOR TO THE WORK THAT THEY WERE

DOING, A KIND OF SYSTEM TO THE

WORK THEY WERE TRYING TO DO IN

TERMS OF TRACKING AND

INTERVENING EARLY SO THEY DIDN’T

GET SO FAR BEHIND THE EIGHT BALL

THAT THAT PROBABILITY OF

GRADUATING FELL SO SHARPLY.

THERE IS A TIMELINE INCLUDED IN

THE SLIDES, AS WELL.

2007 IS A REAL KEY INFLECTION

POINT IN THIS STORY.

I STARTED AS FAR BACK AS 1999.

IN THE EARLY 2000s THE DISTRICT

AND CHICAGO INCLUDED ON TRACK AS

A METRIC ON THE HIGH SCHOOL

SCORE CARD.

THEY MADE IT PART OF THE

ACCOUNTABILITY SYSTEM.

THERE IS A SMALL BLIP IN THE ON

TRACK LINE IF YOU LOOK AT THE

DISTRICT WIDE RATE.

AT THAT POINT PEOPLE PAID

ATTENTION TO IT.

THAT LARGELY LOOKS AT THE SELL

OFF.

THERE WASN’T A LOT OF SUPPORT

AND FOR OUR PART WE WEREN’T

DOING MUCH TO HELP PEOPLE THINK

CRITICALLY ABOUT THE PROBLEM.

2007 IS THE YEAR IN WHICH THE

CONSORTIUM PUBLISHED THE REPORT

WE REFER TO IT AS THE WHAT

MATTERS REPORT.

IT WAS WHAT MATTERS FOR STAYING

ON TRACK AND GRADUATING FROM

HIGH SCHOOL.

THAT REPORT WAS THE REPORT THAT

CONTAINED THOSE FINDINGS ABOUT

GRADES AND ATTENDANCE.

THOSE HAVE BEEN BOLSTERRED WITH

SUBSEQUENT REPORTS.

THE PUBLICATION OF THAT REPORT

MET WITH A LOT OF ENTHUSIASM NOT

JUST IN SCHOOLS BUT ALSO INSIDE

THE DISTRICT.

PEOPLE WERE REALLY LOOKING FOR

WAYS TO THINK ABOUT WORKING ON

THESE PROBLEMS IN A COHERENT AND

SYSTEMATIC FASHION.

THAT REPORT GAVE PEOPLE REAL

TANGIBLE INDICATORS TO HOLD ON

TO AND ATTACK.

AND THE DISTRICT IMMEDIATELY

BEGAN PRODUCING DATA REPORTS

THAT THEY BEGAN PUSHING OUT TO

SCHOOLS, THINGS THAT AT THE

OUTSET WERE AS RUDIMENTARY AS

EXCEL SPREADSHEETS.

THEY HAVE BECOME MUCH MORE

SOPHISTICATED OVER TIME.

I CAN’T SAY THEY MATCH ANYTHING

QUITE AS NICE AS WHAT I HAVE

SEEN NEW VISIONS PRODUCING

LATELY.

THE SOPHISTICATION OF THE DATA

TOOLS IN SOME WAYS DOESN’T EVEN

THE STORY.

THE STORY WAS THAT SCHOOLS WERE

RECEIVING THAT REAL TIME

FEEDBACK AND IN THE CONTEXT OF

EVOLVING STRUCTURE OF ONGOING

SORT OF PROTOCOLS AND

CONVERSATIONS BETWEEN DISTRICT

OFFICIALS, OUTSIDE PROVIDERS AND

SCHOOL STAFF PEOPLE WERE GETTING

DEEP INTO THE WORK OF TRACKING

AND UNDERSTANDING THEIR

PERFORMANCE ON GRADES AND

ATTENDANCE AS THEY RELATED TO ON

TRACK AND THE RESULTS WERE

PRETTY DRAMATIC.

BETWEEN THAT 2007-2008 PERIOD

WHERE THE REPORT APPEARED AND

DATA REPORTS WERE FIRST

INTRODUCED WE HAVE SEEN MORE

THAN 25 PERCENTAGE POINTS

IMPROVEMENT IN THE ON TRACK RATE

IN CHICAGO.

AND IN SOME WAYS IT WAS EXCITING

TO HEAR BECKY DESCRIBING THE

FINDINGS AROUND THE SMALL

SCHOOLS IN NEW YORK AND THE

DISTRIBUTION OF THOSE POSITIVE

OUTCOMES ACROSS SUBGROUPS.

ONE OF THE THINGS WE HAVE BEEN

MOST STRUCK BY AS WE LOOKED AT

THE RESULTS IN CHICAGO OF THIS

SHARP RISE IN ON TRACK RATES HAS

BEEN THE FACT THAT THE MOST

VULNERABLE STUDENTS, THOSE WE

HAVE TRADITIONALLY DONE THE

WORST BY IN TERMS OF HOW WELL WE

SERVE OUR STUDENTS ARE THE ONES

WHO SEEM TO HAVE BENEFITTED THE

MOST.

THERE HAS BEEN MORE THAN 28

PERCENTAGE POINT RISE OF ON

TRACK RATE FOR AFRICAN-AMERICAN

MALES.

MORE THAN 25 PERCENTAGE POINT

RISE FOR LATINO MALES AND 24.5

PERCENTAGE POINT RISE FOR

STUDENTS WITH THE LOWEST

INCOMING TEST SCORES.

JUST TO UNDER SCORE THAT IS NOT

A PATTERN THAT ANY OF US WOULD

HAVE PREDICTED IN CHICAGO.

TYPICALLY WHEN WE MAKE A BIG

MOVE TO DO SOMETHING IN TERMS OF

SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT THE WORST OFF

ARE NOT THE FIRST TO BENEFIT BY

IT AND RARELY DO THEY BENEFIT

THE MOST.

IT IS A REALLY EXCITING MOMENT

IN THE DISTRICT.

IT IS EXCITING NOT JUST BECAUSE

THOSE IMPROVEMENTS HAPPENED IN

NINTH GRADE AND THE MOVEMENTS

WERE SO LARGE, BUT TO BECKY’S

POINT ABOUT HOW THESE EFFECTS

THAT THEY HAVE SEEN IN NEW YORK

HAVE BEEN SUSTAINED WE HAVE SEEN

THAT INCREASE IN NINTH GRADE ON

TRACK RATES SUSTAINED IN TENTH,

11th AND 12th GRADE AND WE HAVE

BEEN ABLE TO LOOK AT A COUPLE OF

DIFFERENT COHORTS OF STUDENTS

GOING FAR ENOUGH BACK WHERE WE

CAN SEE THE RISE IN ON TRACK AND

THE SUBSEQUENT RISE THREE YEARS

LATER IN GRADUATION RATES THAT

WE HAVE PUBLISHED FINDINGS LAST

APRIL SHOWING THAT THE RISE IN

ON TRACK RATES WAS DIRECTLY TIED

WITH A RISE IN THE GRADUATION

RATE.

ONE OF THE LAST SLIDES I

INCLUDED IS A SLIDE THAT IN AN

ELECTION YEAR IN CHICAGO IS VERY

POPULAR AMONG MAYORAL CANDIDATES

SHOWING THE PROJECTED RISE.

IT’S THE ON TRACK RATE RISING

WITH GRADUATION RATE RISING

BEHIND IT.

THE MAYOR HAS TAKEN TO EXTENDING

THAT LINE OUT A LITTLE FARTHER.

I WONDER IF HE AVOIDED RUN OFF

IF HE MADE THE POINT A LITTLE

MORE EXPLICITLY.

PEOPLE IN CHICAGO ARE NOW

CONFIDENTLY PROJECTING THE IDEA

THAT WE MAY HIT 80% GRADUATION

RATE IN THE COMING YEARS.

AND FOR SOMEONE WHO WAS WATCHING

THIS TREND OVER THE COURSE OF

THIS TIME PERIOD IT’S REALLY

REMARKABLE.

IT’S STAGGERING IN SOME WAYS TO

CONSIDER THE PROGRESS THAT HAS

BEEN MADE AND IT’S HEARTENING TO

HEAR IT HAS BEEN MADE IN SUCH A

SIMILAR WAY IN NEW YORK BECAUSE

IT CONFIRMS A LOT OF THINGS WE

HAVE BEEN MOST OPTIMISTIC ABOUT

IN TERMS OF WHAT THIS SAYS IS

POSSIBLE FOR URBAN EDUCATORS IN

SCHOOLS.

>> DO YOU HAVE MORE SLIDES YOU

WANT TO SHOW?

>> THAT IS THE END OF MY SLIDES.

IF YOU WANTED ME TO — THERE ARE

AT LEAST A HANDFUL OF OTHER

POINTS I WOULD MAKE CONNECTING

DOTS BETWEEN THINGS.

I FEEL LIKE RON WAS IN MY

PLAYBACK FOR AN EXTENDED PERIOD.

SO I FEEL LIKE I HAVE MADE MY

KEY POINTS.

THERE ARE A HANDFUL OF THINGS ON

THE PERSONALIZATION FRONT THAT I

COULD UNDER SCORE BUT THAT’S IT

FOR MY SLIDE SHOW AT THIS POINT.

>> I HAVE A QUESTION, BUT IF YOU

HAVE OTHER REMARKS YOU WANT TO

MAKE PLEASE DO.

>> I WILL SHARE ONE OTHER

THOUGHT AND THEN I WOULD BE

HAPPY TO TAKE THE QUESTION.

THE ONE THING I WAS STRUCK BY

LISTENING BOTH TO WHAT BECKY AND

RON SHARED WAS THIS ISSUE OF

PERSONALIZATION AND I LIKE THE

WAY YOU SUMMARIZED IT.

PERSONALIZATION ACHIEVED THROUGH

A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH WHICH IN

SOME WAYS IS A BIT COUNTER

INTUITIVE.

THE PROCESS BY WHICH WE WORK TO

UNDERSTAND THE DATA WE HAVE ON

KIDS AND WHAT IT TELLS US ABOUT

WHO IS AT RISK FOR WHAT.

AND THIS IS A SLIGHTLY COUNTER

INTATIVE WAY OF APPROACHING HOW

YOU PERSONALIZE THINGS.

BY STANDARDIZING THE PRACTICE OF

UNDERSTANDING THE DATA AND

WORKING DIRECTLY WITH SCHOOLS

AROUND HOW TO USE THE

INFORMATION WE HAVE GOTTEN TO A

POINT WHERE PEOPLE HAVE ACTUALLY

GOTTEN NOT LESS FLEXIBLE, NOT

LESS PROFESSIONAL BUT MORE SO ON

BOTH COUNTS.

I THINK WE HAVE SEEN REALLY

EXCITING RESULTS NOT JUST

BECAUSE THE INDICATOR PROVIDES

MEANINGFUL FEEDBACK TO SCHOOLS

ABOUT THEIR PERFORMANCE BUT ALSO

BECAUSE IT ENABLES A KIND OF

CAPACITY THAT THOSE OF US WHO

ARE SORT OF BROADLY BULLISH ON

PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN GENERAL HAVE

LONG THOUGHT WAS THERE.

RON MADE A NICE POINT ABOUT THE

INVESTMENTS IN THINKING ABOUT

ADULTS WORKING TOGETHER ON TEAMS

AND ADULTS AS LEARNERS.

I THINK THIS IS A REAL WE THINK

PART OF THE STORY IN CHICAGO IS

A REAL EXCITING STORY ABOUT

ADULTS LEARNING THEMSELVES ABOUT

THEIR OWN PRANGT S AND USING

THAT LEARNING TO DRIVE

IMPROVEMENT.

>> THE QUESTION CAME FROM JOHN

IN CLEVELAND ASKING ABOUT THE

UTILITY OF TESTS.

SO THERE IS THE INCREASED —

WHAT HAVE THE CONSORTIUM OR

OTHERS FOUND ABOUT THE USE OF

TEST SCORES IN PREDICTING

WHETHER STUDENTS ARE ON TRACK TO

GRADUATION AND WHAT INDICATORS

HAVE BEEN PREDICTIVE OF STUDENTS

LATER SUCCESS?

>> IT’S A GREAT QUESTION.

THE SHORT ANSWER IS THAT TEST

SCORES ARE PREDICTIVE OF OTHER

TEST SCORES.

WHAT WE UNDERSTAND ABOUT THE ON

TRACK RATE IS THAT WHEN YOU KNOW

A STUDENT’S ON TRACK STATUS IN

NINTH GRADE YOU DON’T NEED TO

KNOW A WHOLE LOT MORE ABOUT THAT

STUDENT IN ORDER TO PREDICT

ACCURATELY WHETHER OR NOT THEY

ARE GOING TO GRADUATE FROM HIGH

SCHOOL.

ON TRACK STATUS IN NINTH GRADE

FROM A STATISTICAL STANDPOINT

ISN’T IMPROVED.

THAT PREDICTION ISN’T IMPROVED

BY THROWING IN PRIOR ACHIEVEMENT

AND A WHOLE HOST OF DEMOGRAPHIC

AND BACKGROUND VARIABLES.

WE CAN THROW THE KITCHEN SINK IN

ON TOP OF ON TRACK AND THE

PREDICTION DOESN’T GET

DIFFERENT.

FROM US FROM A RESEARCH

STANDPOINT SAYS THE STORY IS IN

MANY WAYS NOT ABOUT PRIOR

ACHIEVEMENT BUT ABOUT WHAT

HAPPENS IN NINTH GRADE.

THE FUNDAMENTALLY HEARTENING

MESSAGE ON SOME LEVEL BECAUSE IT

SUGGESTS THERE IS AN ENORMOUS

AMOUNT IN THE CONTROL OF HIGH

SCHOOLS AND THAT TEST SCORES ARE

NOT IN ANY MEANINGFUL SENSE

DESTINY IN TERMS OF WHEN

STUDENTS REACH THE NINTH GRADE

THRESHOLD.

AS IT TURNS OUT ONE OF THE

THINGS EXCITING ABOUT THE

ATTENDANCE FINDING IS THAT IT

HAS BEEN PICKED UP AND WORKED

OVER IN SUBSEQUENT WORK.

COLLEAGUES HAVE PUBLISHED

ANOTHER STUDY LOOKING AT MIDDLE

GRADES INDICATORS OF HIGH SCHOOL

READINESS SO TRYING TO BUILD

BACKWARDS TO TRY TO UNDERSTAND

WHAT IS PREDICTIVE OF STUDENTS

SUCCESS IN HIGH SCHOOL.

AS IT TURNS OUT ATTENDANCE

CONTINUES TO BE PIVOTAL AND

ATTENDANCE IN SOME WAYS IS MORE

IMPORTANT AND POTENTIALLY MUCH

HIGHER LEVERAGE STRATEGY THAN

FOCUSING ON TEST SCORES WOULD BE

IF YOUR GOAL IS ULTIMATELY TO

MOVE NOT JUST HIGH SCHOOL

GRADUATION AND BUT ALSO COLLEGE

GRADUATION FOR THAT MATTER.

TEST SCORES ARE RELATIVELY

DIFFICULT TO MOVE.

THAT IS NOT NEWS WORTHY.

THE PROGRESS WE HAVE

DEMONSTRATED IN CHICAGO WHERE

BENCHMARK TEST IN 11th GRADE HAS

BEEN INCREMENTAL.

IT HAS BEEN PROGRESS BUT TINY.

IT IS TINY IN COMPARISON TO THE

PROGRESS SCHOOLS HAVE BEEN ABLE

TO MAKE ON ATTENDANCE AND GRADES

BOTH OF WHICH TURN OUT TO BE

MORE IMPORTANT ULTIMATELY IN

TERMS OF PREDICTING STUDENTS

LIKELIHOOD OF SUCCEEDING IN HIGH

SCHOOL AND COLLEGE AT THE END OF

THE DAY.

>> THAT IS VERY INTERESTING AND

ILLUMINATING.

WE GOT A QUESTION IN FROM DANIEL

IN PHILADELPHIA ASKING ABOUT

WHETHER OR NOT YOU’RE CONCERNED

ABOUT SCHOOL TEACHERS GAINING

THE RESULTS WITH USING GRADES TO

PUT MORE STUDENTS ON TRACK.

IS THERE A PROBLEM WITH THE

SUBJECTIVITY OF GRADES AND THEY

CAN BE MANIPULATED?

>> IT IS A REALLY IMPORTANT

QUESTION.

ANYTIME WE BUILD A SYSTEM IN THE

SCHOOL DISTRICT THAT IS DESIGNED

TO INCENTIVISE SOMETHING THERE

IS LEGITIMATE REASON TO BE

CONCERNED ABOUT WHAT THAT

INCENTIVE DOES TO THE BEHAVIOR

NOT JUST OF ADULTS BUT OF KIDS

FOR THAT MATTER.

WE LOOKED AT THIS AS PART OF THE

RESEARCH THAT WE PUBLISHED LAST

YEAR.

IT’S IMPOSSIBLE TO SAY THAT

THERE WAS NO GAMING AT ALL IN

ANY SCHOOL ANYWHERE AND THERE

HAVE BEEN VARIOUS EFFORTS IN THE

LOCAL MEDIA AND CHICAGO TO FIND

THE EXAMPLES.

AND IT IS A LEGITIMATE SET OF

QUESTIONS TO ASK.

ON BALANCE ACROSS THE DISTRICT

THERE IS NO EVIDENCE THAT WE

HAVE BEEN ABLE TO FIND OF THE

GRADES BEING GAINED IN THE WAY

THAT PEOPLE FEARED.

YOU’D EXPECT TO SEE THAT IN TWO

DIFFERENT PLACES WHICH ARE THE

IMMEDIATE PLACES WE LOOKED.

ONE WOULD BE YOU WOULD EXPECT TO

SEE THE MOST OBVIOUS THING TO DO

IF YOU WERE A TEACHER WOULD BE

CHANGE Fs INTO Ds.

LET’S TAKE THE FAILING KIDS AND

MOVE THEM UP A NOTCH.

IT’S NOT JUST A SHIFT IN THE

DISTRIBUTION FROM Fs TO Ds BUT A

SHIFT ACROSS THE BOARD.

WE HAVE MORE STUDENTS EARNING As

AND Bs NOW.

THAT REALLY SUGGESTS THAT IT HAS

NOT BEEN A QUESTION OF TEACHERS

REALLY MOVING KIDS OVER A

CATEGORY IN ORDER TO AVOID

GETTING HIT WITH THE STICK FOR

NOT HAVING — FOR HAVING FAILED

TOO MANY KIDS.

THE OTHER PLACE WROU EXPECT TO

SEE IT WOULD BE IF THE KIDS WHO

WERE UNDER PRIOR CIRCUMSTANCES

WERE DROPPING OUT, IF THOSE KIDS

WERE BEING KEPT IN THE DISTRICT,

IF WE WERE JUST GIVING KIDS A

FREE PASS AND PASSING THEM ALONG

FROM NINTH TO TENTH GRADE

HANDING OUT Ds INSTEAD OF Fs YOU

WOULD EXPECT TO SEE TEST SCORES

TAKE A HIT.

YOU WOULD EXPECT TO SEE THE 10th

AND 11th GRADE PLAN AND ACT

SCORES SHOULD DIP AFTER THAT

HAPPENS BECAUSE YOU ARE KEEPING

WEAKER STUDENTS IN THE SCHOOL AT

THAT POINT.

AS IT TURNS OUT NEITHER OF THOSE

THINGS HAPPEN.

THERE IS NO DIP IN TEST SCORES.

THERE IS AN INCREMENTAL RISE

WHICH YOU COULD INTERPRET AND WE

HAVE TALKED THIS OVER INTERNALLY

A FAIR BIT, AS INDICATING THAT

WHEN YOU KEEP THESE STUDENTS IN

SCHOOL, THE STUDENTS WHO

PREVIOUSLY BECAUSE OF ATTENDANCE

PROBLEMS OR COURSE FAILURES

MIGHT HAVE BEEN DROP OUTS THEY

LEARN AS MUCH AS STUDENTS WHO

HAVE BEEN THERE ALL ALONG WHICH

IS AN EXCITING THING TO SAY TO A

TEACHER.

IF I TAKE A CHILD WHO MIGHT HAVE

BEEN OUT OF SCHOOL AND KEEP THEM

IN SCHOOL AND KEEP THEM IN FRONT

OF YOU IN A CLASSROOM THAT CHILD

CAN LEARN.

IT’S A VERY SORT OF ELEMENTAL

AND AT THE SAME TIME

ILLUMINATING POINT FOR A LOT OF

THE TEACHERS WE WORKED WITH.

>> THANK YOU.

THESE ARE POWERFUL FINDINGS AND

SPEAKS TO IMPORTANCE OF USING

EVIDENCE AND DATA ON AN ONGOING

BASIS TO MAKE THESE KINDS OF

CRITICAL DECISIONS ABOUT WHAT TO

FOCUS ON AND WHAT TO IMPROVE.

SO I AM GOING TO TURN NOW TO

ANOTHER BODY OF RESEARCH TAKING

PLACE IN OTHER URBAN SYSTEMS,

PHILADELPHIA AND BALTIMORE AND

OTHER AREAS.

AND THIS RESEARCH UNDER PINS

MANY OF THE SUCCESSFUL NATIONAL

EFFORTS TO IMPROVE EDUCATIONAL

OUTCOMES FOR LOW INCOME STUDENTS

IN URBAN DISTRICTS.

I AM DELIGHTED TO WELCOME BOB

BALFANZ, DIRECTS THE EVERYONE

GRADUATES CENTER.

AND THE RECIPIENT OF A FEDERAL

INVESTING IN EDUCATION GRANT TO

TRANSFORM SCHOOLS SO MANY

STUDENTS CAN GRADUATE.

BOB, THE NATION HAS SEEN VAST

IMPROVEMENTS IN GRADUATION RATES

AND MANY HIGH SCHOOLS SERVING

HIGH NEEDS STUDENTS.

WOULD YOU IN YOUR VIEW TALK

ABOUT OVER THIS TIME PERIOD WHAT

HAS ACCOUNTED FOR THESE

IMPROVEMENTS IN GRADUATION

RATES?

WHAT ARE THE CHALLENGES THAT

REMAIN TO ENSURE WE HAVE MANY

MORE STUDENTS ACHIEVING HIGH

LEVELS OF EDUCATIONAL

ATTAINMENT?

>> THE FIRST THING IS TAKE A

MINUTE TO REFLECT TO THE

MAGNITUDE OF THE IMPROVEMENT

WHICH SHOWS ON A NATIONAL LEVEL

WHAT WE HEARD IS HAPPENING MORE

BROADLY WHICH WAS THAT LARGE

SCALE IMPROVEMENT IN THE OUTCOME

FOR PUBLIC SCHOOLS ARE POSSIBLE

THAT IN A DECADE WE WENT FROM

THE LOWEST MODERN GRADUATION

RATE.

71% TO 81% NOW WHICH IS THE

HIGHEST GRADUATION RATE IN OUR

NATION’S HISTORY.

IN THE DECADE IT WAS ENORMOUS

IMPROVEMENT.

IT MEANT MORE KIDS GRADUATED.

AND A NUMBER OF LOW GRADUATION

RATE HIGH SCHOOLS REALLY FELL

FROM 2000 INTO 1,200.

SOME OF THOSE WERE IN NEW YORK

WHERE THEY CLOSED A NUMBER OF

THE SCHOOLS AND REPLACED THEM

WITH SMALL SCHOOLS THAT WORKED

BETTER.

A NUMBER HAPPENED IN CHICAGO.

WE HAVE TO REALLY SEE THAT,

REALLY LARGE SCALE IMPROVEMENT

IS POSSIBLE.

THAT IS IMPORTANT TO KEEP IN

MIND.

WHY DID IT HAPPEN?

A COUPLE OF REASONS.

ONE WAS THAT WE LEARNED MORE

ABOUT WHY KIDS DROP OUT AND THE

SIGNALS ARE GIVEN.

VARIOUS THINGS ABOUT EARLY

WARNING INDICATORS.

WE KNEW WHERE THE SCHOOLS WERE.

WE KNEW WHO THE KIDS WERE AND

WHEN THEY FAILED AND GET TO THE

PROBLEM EARLIER.

SECOND OF ALL, ACCOUNTABILITY

MADE A BIG DIFFERENCE.

MOST OF THE PROGRESS OCCURRED

AFTER 2008 WHEN PEOPLE GOT THE

SIGNAL FROM THE FEDERAL

GOVERNMENT THAT RATES REALLY

MATTER AND THAT WAS A SERIOUS

THING AND TOLD PEOPLE TO DIRECT

YOUR ATTENTION THERE.

I THINK IT LOST ACCOUNTABILITY

THING.

IT IS SAYING THIS IS WHERE FOCUS

YOUR ATTENTION ON WE KNOW THIS

IS AN IMPORTANT THING FOR OUR

STUDENTS TO FOCUS HERE.

THAT REALLY HAS BIG EFFECT

ACROSS THE NATION ON FOCUSING ON

IMPROVING GRAD RATES.

PEOPLE WERE ABLE TO PUT TOGETHER

DIFFERENT AGGREGATIONS OF

EVIDENCE BASED STRATEGY.

NEW YORK TOOK ONE PASS AND

CHICAGO TOOK ANOTHER.

THEY ACTUALLY BOTH WORKED.

NEW YORK SHOULD BE MORE LIKE

CHICAGO AND CHICAGO MORE LIKE

NEW YORK BECAUSE IT’S GOING TO

TAKE THOSE THINGS OVER TIME.

AND THEN WHAT’S REALLY

HEARTENING IS THAT THIS ONLY GOT

BETTER IN PLACES IT WORKED IN.

THEY GOT SUBSTANTIALLY BETTER IN

THE STATES AND DISTRICTS THAT

WORK THE PROBLEM.

THEY STAYED FLAT OR GOING DOWN

IN DISTRICTS AND STATES THAT

HAVEN’T WORKED THE PROBLEM.

THE ANSWER OF WHAT WE HAVE TO DO

NEXT IS FIND WAYS TO BRING WHAT

HAS WORKED AND BRING CAPACITY

NEEDED TO IMPLEMENT IT IN THE

PLACES YET TO WORK THE PROBLEM.

>> THIS IS A PERFECT QUESTION.

BILL IN LOS ANGELES IS ASKING

ABOUT IS THIS SCALABLE?

SHOULD WE IMMEDIATELY SUGGEST

EACH SCHOOL SHOULD START USING

ON TRACK INDICATORS?

>> YES.

>> HOW DO WE MOBILIZE THE

COMMUNITY TO REALLY, AS YOU

SAID, WORK THE PROBLEM?

WHAT ELSE IS NEEDED TO ENSURE

THAT THEY ARE AS COMMITTED TO

USING ON TRACK INDICATORS?

>> IT IS AN ARGUMENT FOR STRONG

CENTRAL ROLE BECAUSE THEY CAN

HELP SHINE SPOT LIGHT ON PLACES

THAT NEED TO MAKE MORE PROGRESS

AND HELP CONNECT THEM WITH

PLACES THAT HAVE.

IN OUR DECENTRALIZED SYSTEM IF

YOU DON’T HAVE AN ACTOR AT THE

FEDERAL LEVEL IT DOESN’T GET

DONE.

WHO IS GOING TO BE MOTIVATED TO

MAKE SURE THIS DISTRICT IS AWARE

OF THIS?

AT THAT POINT IN TIME THE PEOPLE

IN THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION

HAVE OTHER IMPORTANT ISSUES OEN

THEIR MIND.

I REALLY THINK THERE IS A

FEDERAL ROLE THERE.

AND ALSO AS WE SAID IT IS A

COMBINATION OF THE DATA AND THE

HUMAN SYSTEM AND RECOGNIZE NOT

JUST A DATA TOOL MAKES IT

HAPPEN.

THE DATA TOOL MAKES IT EASIER.

IF YOU DON’T BUILD THE HUMAN

SYSTEM TO USE THE DATA AND

INTERNALIZE IT YOU WON’T HAVE

THE PROGRESS.

>> AND THE POINT OF HAVING THE

STANDARD CALCULATION OF

GRADUATION RATES HAD A HUGE

IMPACT ON EXACTLY DRIVING THOSE

IMPROVEMENTS WHICH FORCE FOLKS

TO LOOK AT AN INDICATOR THAT WAS

MEANINGFUL AND CLEARLY

REPRESENTS WHAT WAS HAPPENING IN

THOSE SCHOOLS.

IT’S A GOOD EXAMPLE.

>> IN TERMS OF THERE IS A LOT OF

DISCUSSION AROUND WHAT WORKS,

WHAT DOESN’T, HOW DO YOU KNOW?

HOW DO YOU SPREAD AND SCALE

EVIDENCE-BASED SOLUTIONS SO THAT

THEY PRODUCE CONSISTENT GAINS?

YOU MENTIONED A LITTLE BIT IN

TERMS OF WHO WORKS THE PROBLEM.

WHAT ELSE HAVE WE LEARNED ABOUT

THE PROBLEMS OF IMPLEMENTATION,

THE CHALLENGES OF SCALING AND

SPREADING?

ARE THERE THINGS EMERGING NOW TO

HELP SOLVE SOME OF THOSE

PROBLEMS?

>> I THINK ONE THING IS THAT WE

HAVE — WE KNOW A LOT MORE THAN

WE KNEW IN 2000.

THERE HAS BEEN A BIG IMPROVEMENT

ABOUT EVIDENCE BASE THAT WORKS.

DIFFERENT LEVELS FOR

INSTRUCTIONAL IMPROVEMENT,

GETTING KIDS TO COME TO SCHOOL

AND GETTING KIDS COLLEGE READY.

WE HAVE A MUCH STRONGER

KNOWLEDGE BASE THAN A DECADE

AGO.

PART OF THE CHALLENGE IS THAT

SCHOOLS ARE INHERENTLY STILL

CRAFT BASED INSTITUTIONS.

THE INURSHA IS THAT PEOPLE FEEL

EVIDENCE IS INTERESTING AND

COULD BE A WAY TO GO BUT SO IS

WHAT A FELLOW TEACHER TOLD ME OR

WHAT I LEARNED AT ANOTHER SCHOOL

WHICH ALSO HAS VALUE.

THE PROBLEM IS THAT CRAFT-BASED

APPROACH DOESN’T SCALE.

IT ONLY LIVES IN THAT CLASSROOM

WITH THAT TEACHER OR THAT SCHOOL

AND THAT PRINCIPAL.

YOU HAVE TO BUILD INCENTIVES AT

THE FEDERAL AND STATE LEVEL TO

GET PEOPLE INCENTIVISED TO TAKE

A MORE EVIDENCE-BASED APPROACH.

THAT HAS TO BE WORKED TO GET A

SPREAD OF MOVING PEOPLE USING

MORE OF AN EVIDENCE-BASED

APPROACH.

IT TOOK MEDICINE 100 YEARS TO

GET THERE.

IT IS HUGE PROGRESS.

WE HAVE TO TAKE THE SAME VIEW.

>>> I WANT TO GET A LITTLE

SPECIFIC.

ONE OF THE THINGS THERE ARE

THESE HUGE NEEDS IN A LOT OF

AREAS PARTICULARLY URBAN AREAS

IN TERMS OF INTENSITY AND THE

KINDS OF CHALLENGES THAT KIDS

HAVE.

HOW DO YOU DESIGN WHOLE SCHOOL

ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES TO

BEGIN TO ADDRESS VARYING LEVELS.

>> ONE WE HAD BECAUSE WE DID A

LOT OF WORK ABOUT THE WHOLE

SCHOOL PIECE.

WE STILL HAVE ON TRACK

INDICATORS OFTEN AS A SCALE OF

100 OR 200 KIDS IN A SCHOOL AND

LED US TO THINK WE HAD TO BUILD

SYSTEMS THAT LED TO ENHANCED

STUDENT SUPPORT BY BRINGING MORE

ADULTS INTO THE SCHOOL THROUGH

PROGRAMS LIKE COMMUNITIES IN

SCHOOLS THAT WORK ON DIPLOMAS

NOW MODEL WITH THE IDEA IF YOU

HAVE TOO MANY NEEDY KIDS AND NOT

ENOUGH ADULTS YOU HAVE CAPACITY

TO HAVE A PERSONALIZED OUTCOME

AND YOU NEED TO INFUSE THE

SCHOOL WITH ADDITIONAL CAPACITY

WHEN THEIR LEVEL OF NEED IS SO

HIGH THEY ARE IN A NEIGHBORHOOD

OF CONCENTRATED POVERTY FOR

EXAMPLE.

THE OTHER THING KEY IS BY USING

ON TRACK INDICATORS THAT LETS

YOU FINE TUNE SUPPORT BECAUSE

YOU ASK YOURSELF SHOULD WE

INTERVENE AT AN INDIVIDUAL

LEVEL, CLASSROOM LEVEL, SCHOOL

LEVEL, DISTRICT LEVEL?

WHAT IS THE MOST STRATEGIC POINT

TO INTERVENE?

ONCE YOU HAVE THE ONGOING SORT

OF DATA FLOW YOU CAN BE

CONTINUING TO ASK THAT QUESTION

ON A MORE OFTEN BASIS TO GET

MUCH MORE QUICKER FEEDBACK LOOP.

THAT LETS YOU FINE TUNE YOUR

RESPONSE.

SOMETIMES WE HAVE A SUBSET OF

KIDS WE HAVE TO HAVE A DIRECT

ANSWER FOR.

SOMETIMES IT IS ACTUALLY A

TEACHER ISSUE AND A SUBJECT.

THAT GIVES YOU THE ABILITY TO

FINE TUNE YOUR RESPONSE AND HAVE

MORE CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT

APPROACH AS OPPOSED TO ONE MODEL

THAT HAS TO FIX EVERYTHING OR

ELSE OR NOT.

WE TAKE OUR BEST SHOT AND HOPE

IT WORKS.

>> THIS IS OUT OF LEFT FIELD.

WHAT GETS YOU EXCITED ABOUT WHAT

YOU ARE SEEING AS THE

POSSIBILITIES?

>> WHAT’S REALLY EXCITING IS THE

COMBINATION OF THE THINGS THAT

ON TRACK INDICATORS AND

EXTENSIONS OF IT ALLOWING TEAMS

OF TEACHERS TO BECOME MORE

EMPOWERED AND POOL INSIGHTS.

THEY EACH HAVE DIFFERENT POINT

OF VIEW.

IF YOU CREATE STRUCTURES THEY

DEVISE INTERVENTIONS, SEE IF

THEY WORK.

THAT CREATES A MUCH MORE

POWERFUL IN-SCHOOL SYSTEM.

THAT IS ONE THING THAT EXCITES

ME IS THE POTENTIAL TO UNLOCK A

LOT OF THAT EXISTING TALENT AND

KNOWLEDGE IN THE SCHOOL.

DEPARTMENTALIZED HIGH SCHOOL YOU

NEVER KNOW WHO YOUR KIDS SOCIAL

STUDIES OR ENGLISH TEACHERS ARE.

YOU ONLY TALK TO MATH TEACHERS.

YOU CAN POOL YOUR KNOWLEDGE OF

THAT STUDENT AND CREATE A MUCH

MORE HOLISTIC SUPPORT FOR THEM.

THERE HAS BEEN AN EXPLOSION IN

THE ALLIED FIELDS, NEUROSCIENCE,

BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE.

NOW IT’S ALMOST A TSUNAMI WAVE

OF USEFULNESS THAT WE ARE

GETTING INSIGHTS FROM THOSE

FIELDS WHICH WILL LEAD TO MORE

POWERFUL INSTRUCTIONAL

ENVIRONMENTS FOR THE KIDS.

>> YOU HEARD THE WHOLE THING IN

TERMS OF CAPITALIZING ON THE

EXPERTISE AND BUILDING UPON THAT

FROM RON AND DAVE.

NOW WE ARE GOING TO TURN TO

SCOTT WHO WILL MAKE ALL OF THIS

HAPPEN.

OUR AUDIENCE KNOWS THAT FEDERAL

AND STATE GOVERNMENT PLAY KEY

ROLES IN DESIGNING AND INVESTING

IN HIGH SCHOOL REFORM.

TO TALK ABOUT THE POLICY

IMPLICATIONS OF THE EFFORTS WE

TURN TO SCOTT SARGRAD DEPUTY

ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR POLICY

AND STRATEGIC INITIATIVES AT THE

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION.

HE HAS MULTIPLE — SCHOOL

IMPROVEMENT GRANTS AND OTHER

PROGRAMS AROUND ACCOUNTABILITY,

HIGH SCHOOL TRANSFORMATION.

WITH ALL OF THAT, WE ARE GOING

TO TALK ABOUT SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT

GRANT.

THE DEPARTMENT RECENTLY RELEASED

NEW GUIDANCE THAT ALLOWS FOR

EVIDENCE-BASED WHOLE SCHOOL

REFORM OPTION UNDER THIS

PROGRAM.

WHAT WAS THE RATIONALE FOR DOING

THIS AND HOW AN EVIDENCE-BASED

MODEL IS DEFINED?

THANK YOU FOR BEING HERE.

>> ABSOLUTELY.

I’M HAPPY TO TALK ABOUT SOME OF

THE HISTORY HERE AND HOW WE HAVE

BEEN TALKING ABOUT THE USE OF

EVIDENCE IN SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT

GRANTS AND ALSO PERFORMING LOW

PERFORMANCE SCHOOLS AND

GENERALLY IN OUR PROGRAM.

SO OUR WORK ON EVIDENCE REALLY

BEGAN BACK IN 2009 WITH RECOVERY

ACT AND INVESTING IN INNOVATION

PROGRAM.

THE IDEA THERE WAS THAT YOU HAVE

SOME PROGRAMS THAT HAVE A SMALL

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE, PROMISING

THEORY, A LITTLE BIT OF EVIDENCE

ABOUT IT MIGHT WORK AND HAS REAL

POTENTIAL.

THOSE KINDS OF PROPOSALS COULD

GET MONEY TO FURTHER DEVELOP AND

FIGURE OUT HOW TO BUILD MORE

EVIDENCE.

THE SECOND LEVEL THERE IS

ACTUALLY PRETTY GOOD EVIDENCE

THAT THIS IS WORKING.

THESE PROGRAMS AND INITIATIVES

NEED SOME MORE SIGNIFICANT

INVESTMENT TO VALIDATE WHAT THEY

HAVE LEARNED.

TO DEVELOP SOME HIGHER QUALITY

EVIDENCE TO TRY THIS IN

DIFFERENT POPULATIONS TO FIGURE

OUT IF IT IS GOING TO WORK IN

OTHER KINDS OF SITUATIONS AND

REALLY LOOKING AT THE HIGHEST

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE WHERE WE HAVE

REALLY STRONG INDICATIONS THAT

THIS IS WORKING FOR KIDS AND

THAT IT IS SOMETHING THAT WE

WANT TO INVEST VERY HEAVILY IN

FOR THE FEDERAL LEVEL AND SCALE

UP.

SO THERE ARE JUST A FEW EXAMPLES

OF THAT SO FAR.

IT’S A GEARED APPROACH AND HAS

BEEN A REALLY INTERESTING WAY

FOR US TO INCENTIVISE THE

DEVELOPMENT OF EVIDENCE AT THE

LOWER LEVELS AND SUPPORT THE

SCALING OF PRACTICES AND

STRATAEMGS THAT HAVE THE HIGH

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE.

THAT WAS SORT OF THE BEGINNINGS

OF THIS.

WHAT WE HAVE BEEN TRYING TO DO

IS INFUSE SOME OF THAT IN THE

OTHER PROGRAMS WE HAVE.

SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT GRANTS IS A

GOOD EXAMPLE.

WE HAVE BEEN LEARNING THROUGH

OUR IMPLEMENTATION THAT WE HAVE

FOUR MODELS TO BEGIN WITH AND

THOSE WERE BASED ON THE BEST

EVIDENCE AT THE TIME OF THE

TYPES OF THINGS THAT WORK IN

TURNING AROUND LOW PERFORMING

SCHOOLS, LEADERSHIP, TEACHERS,

CONSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMS, TIME,

THOSE SORTS OF THINGS.

THOSE MODELS FOCUS ON THOSE

PARTICULAR COMPONENTS.

NOW ONE OF THE THINGS WE HAVE

SEEN IS IMPLEMENTATION REALLY

VARIES ACROSS SCHOOLS, STATES,

DISTRICTS AND WE NEED TO HELP

STATES AND DISTRICTS FIGURE OUT

WHAT ACTUALLY IS WORKING AND

WHERE CAN THEY FOCUS THEIR

EFFORTS RATHER THAN JUST ON SOME

MODELS THAT ARE FOCUSED ON SOME

PARTICULAR COMPONENT.

SO I’M STARTING WITH 2014

APPROPRIATIONS ACT.

WE WERE GIVEN AUTHORITY BY

CONGRESS TO INCLUDE A NEW MODEL

AROUND WHOLE SCHOOL REFORM WITH

EVIDENCE-BASED MODEL.

WE WERE REALLY EXCITED ABOUT

THIS AND JUST RECENTLY RELEASED

NEW REGULATIONS TO INCORPORATE

THIS NEW MODEL.

ONE OF THE THINGS WE NEEDED TO

DO FROM THE FEDERAL LEVEL IS

FIGURE OUT WHAT THAT MEANS.

THERE ARE TWO PARTS TO IT.

WHAT IS WHOLE SCHOOL REFORM

MODEL AND WHAT IS AN

EVIDENCE-BASED MODEL?

OUR NEW REGULATIONS WEIGH OUT

TWO THINGS.

FOR WHOLE SCHOOL REFORM MODEL WE

LOOK AT WHAT GENERALLY A WHOLE

SCHOOL REFORM MODEL SHOULD LOOK

LIKE.

THE MODEL HAS TO BE DESIGNED TO

IMPROVE STUDENT ACADEMIC

ACHIEVEMENT.

IT IS DESIGNED FOR IMPROVING

OUTCOMES FOR KIDS.

IT IS A MODEL IMPLEMENTED FOR

ALL STUDENTS IN A SCHOOL.

IT IS A WHOLE SCHOOL REFORM.

IT IS ONLY DESIGNED TO IMPACT

SPECIFIC STUDENTS BUT FOR ALL

STUDENTS.

THE LAST PIECE IS THAT THE MODEL

NEEDS TO ADDRESS IN A

COMPREHENSIVE WAY A FEW KEY

ELEMENTS BUILDING ON THE

RESEARCH ON WHOLE SCHOOL REFORM.

ONE IS SCHOOL LEADERSHIP.

WE KNOW HOW IMPORTANT EFFECTIVE

SCHOOL LEADERS ARE TO TURN

AROUNDS IN PARTICULAR, TEACHING

AND LEARNING AND AT LEAST ONE

CONTENT AREA.

MAKING SURE THAT THE REFORM IS

FOCUSED ON WHETHER IT IS

LITERACY OR MATH OR OTHER KINDS

OF CONTENT AREAS BUT REAL FOCUS

ON ACADEMIC CONTENT INCLUDING

PROFESSIONAL LEARNING FOR

EDUCATORS.

HOW DO YOU MAKE SURE TEACHERS

AND PRINCIPALS HAVE PROFESSIONAL

LEARNING EXPERIENCES THEY NEED.

THE THIRD PIECE IS STUDENT

NON-ACADEMIC SUPPORT.

THERE IS A LOT OF EVIDENCE THAT

THAT REALLY MATTERS, THE THINGS

THAT GO ON OUTSIDE THE CLASSROOM

AND OUTSIDE THE STRICT VIEW OF

ACADEMICS AND OTHER SUPPORTS FOR

STUDENTS ARE REALLY IMPORTANT.

THE LAST PIECE IS FAMILY AND

COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT.

WE KNOW MOST SUCCESSFUL SCHOOL

TURN AROUNDS ARE IN PLACES WHERE

THE DISTRICT ENGAGES THE FAMILY

AND COMMUNITY IN WHAT THEY ARE

DOING.

THOSE ARE THE COMPONENTS OF THE

MODEL THAT WE WANTED TO SEE.

PART TWO OF IT IS THE

EVIDENCE-BASED PART OF THE

MODEL.

WE THROUGH OUR INVESTING PROGRAM

AND GENERAL REGULATIONS

DEVELOPED TIERS OF EVIDENCE.

WHAT WE PUT FORWARD WAS THIS

MODERATE LEVEL OF EVIDENCE IS

WHAT WE WERE REALLY LOOKING FOR.

NOT THE HIGHEST LEVELS OF

EVIDENCE BUT NOT JUST A THEORY

THAT THIS IS GOING TO WORK.

SO WE HAVE THROUGH OUR INSTITUTE

OF EDUCATION SCIENCES HAVE

STANDARDS FOR STUDIES.

AND SO THE PLACE WHERE WE GO TO

ANALYZE THE EVIDENCE OF

EFFECTIVENESS AND LOOK AT THE

QUALITY OF THE STUDIES THAT ARE

COMING IN.

SO THE STUDIES THAT THE MODELS

NEED TO HAVE NEED TO MEET THAT

STANDARD OF THE QUALITY OF THE

STUDY.

THEY HAVE TO FIND FAVORABLE

IMPACTS ON THE STUDENT OUTCOME

MEASURES AND WHAT WE NEED THE

OUTCOME TO BE IS FOCUSED ON

STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT MEASURES.

ARE THE STUDIES FINDING POSITIVE

SIGNIFICANT IMPACTS ON STUDENT

OUTCOMES.

FOR THE MODELS THEY NEED TO HAVE

AT LEAST ONE STUDY THAT MEETS

THE REQUIREMENTS.

WE WANTED TO HAVE THE PROPOSAL

REFORM PART OF THIS AND THE

EVIDENCE BASED PART OF THIS.

>> COULD DISTRICTS THINK ABOUT

USING FUNDS IN ORDER TO SPREAD

INNOVATIONS OR EVIDENCE-BASED

APPROACHES ACROSS SCHOOLS SO

THAT THEY HAVE MORE OF A

SYSTEMIC DISTRICT SUPPORTED

REFORM OR IS IT ONLY — DOES IT

HAVE TO BE SCHOOL BY SCHOOL?

>> THAT’S A REALLY GOOD QUESTION

AND SOMETHING THAT WE HAVE BEEN

SORT OF THINKING ABOUT AND

STRUGGLING WITH BECAUSE IT IS

ORIGINAL DESIGNED AS A FEDERAL

TO STATE TO SCHOOL PROGRAM, VERY

FOCUSED ON SCHOOLS AND HOW TO

HELP TURN AROUND AND STATES THAT

GOT MONEY FROM FEDERAL

GOVERNMENT RAN COMPETITIONS

WHERE DISTRICTS APPLY ON BEHALF

OF THEIR SCHOOLS BUT IN A LOT OF

WAYS IT WAS A VERY

SCHOOL-FOCUSSED PROGRAM.

ONE OF THE THINGS WE LEARNED IS

THAT PLACES THAT HAVE MULTIPLE

LOW PERFORMING SCHOOLS YOU NEED

TO HAVE A STRONG DISTRICT ROLE

THAT IS THINKING SYSTEMICALLY

ABOUT TURNING AROUND.

THERE ARE A LOT OF PLACES WHERE

IT IS THE ONLY SCHOOL IN THE

DISTRICT.

THAT IS A DIFFERENT ANIMAL IN A

LOT OF WAYS THAN A LARGE SYSTEM

THAT HAS MULTIPLE LOW PERFORMING

SCHOOLS.

IN EITHER CASE WE HAVE SEEN YOU

DO NEED STRONG DISTRICT ROLE.

WE HAVE BEEN TRYING TO THINK

ABOUT THAT IN A COUPLE OF WAYS.

ONE IS IN THE REQUIREMENT THAT

WE PUT ON DISTRICTS WHEN

APPLYING FOR FUNDS WE TRY TO

MAKE SURE THAT DISTRICTS ARE

REALLY CONSCIENTIOUS ABOUT HOW

THEY ARE THINKING ABOUT

PLANNING, NEEDS ASSESSMENTS FOR

SCHOOLS, HOW THEY ARE DECIDING

WHO THE EXTERNAL PARTNERS ARE

THEY ARE WORKING WITH, HOW THEY

ARE SCREENING THOSE FOLKS AND

HOLDING THEM ACCOUNTABLE AND

ALIGNING DISTRICT-LEVEL

RESOURCES WITH THE INTERVENTIONS

THAT ARE HAPPENING IN THE

SCHOOLS, HOW THEY MIGHT BE

MODIFYING DISTRICT POLICIES AND

PRACTICES TO SUPPORT

SCHOOL-LEVEL REFORMS.

WE ARE NOW ASKING DISTRICTS TO

ADDRESS THOSE THINGS WHEN THEY

ARE APPLYING TO THEIR STATES FOR

FUNDS.

THAT IS PART ONE.

PART TWO IS THE ACTUAL USES OF

THE DOLLARS.

BECAUSE OF THE WAY THE PROGRAM

IS STRUCTURED IT IS VERY FOCUSED

ON MONEY GOING TO THE LOWEST

PERFORMING SCHOOLS AND FOR

SCHOOL LEVEL INTERVENTION.

THERE ARE WAYS THE DISTRICTS CAN

SUPPORT SCHOOLS MORE BROADLY

DISTRICT 10 USED DOLLARS TO

IMPLEMENT INTERVENTIONS OR

BROADER INTERVENTIONS TARGETED

ON A NUMBER OF LOW PERFORMING

SCHOOLS THAT ARE ELIGIBLE FOR OR

RECEIVING THE DOLLARS.

A GOOD EXAMPLE IS THINGS AROUND

EARLY WARNING INDICATOR SYSTEMS.

DISTRICTS CAN TAKE ADVANTAGE OF

THE DOLLARS TO IMPLEMENT SYSTEMS

LIKE THIS.

THERE ARE CHALLENGES WHEN THE

DISTRICT HAS OTHER SCHOOLS THAT

ARE HIGHER PERFORMING AND NOT

ABLE TO USE SIG DOLLARS.

WE WANT TO MAKE SURE THE MONEY

IS SUPPORTING THOSE SCHOOLS

DIRECTLY BUT THERE ARE WAYS THE

DISTRICT CAN THINK ABOUT

DISTRICT-LEVEL WORK IN THIS

CASE.

>> IT SEEMS THAT WITH THE PAST

TEN YEARS UNDER NO CHILD LEFT

BEHIND IT HAS BECOME

INCREASINGLY APPARENT THAT

LEAVING A DISTRICT OUT IN TRYING

TO DO SCHOOL BY SCHOOL REFORM IS

NOT THE WAY TO GO BUT IT TAKES A

WHILE FOR IT TO EVOLVE INTO

WHERE WE HAVE CLARITY ABOUT WHAT

THAT WOULD LOOK LIKE IN TERMS OF

TRYING TO RUN A PROGRAM AND

TRYING TO PROVIDE GUIDANCE FOR

THE VAST VARIETY OF DISTRICTS IN

THE PARTICULAR CONDITIONS WITHIN

THOSE DISTRICTS IS CHALLENGING.

IT’S VERY CHALLENGING.

SO I WANTED TO TALK A LITTLE BIT

ABOUT THE CURRENT DEBATE OR THE

STALLED DEBATE AS IT WERE AROUND

THE ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY

ACT.

ARE THERE CERTAIN POLICIES THAT

THE ADMINISTRATION IS THINKING

ABOUT AND WHAT IT WOULD LIKE TO

SEE FOR LEVERAGING SOME OF THE

INNOVATIONS AND IMPROVEMENTS

AROUND HIGH SCHOOL REFORM?

>> ABSOLUTELY.

I THINK OUR ADMINISTRATION’S

PRIORITIES BROADLY AND

EVERYTHING FROM FOCUS ON EARLY

CHILDHOOD EDUCATION AND MAKING

SURE THAT IS A BIG PIECE OF A

NEW LAW TO ACCOUNTABILITY THAT

NEEDS TO BE IN PLACE AND ALSO

THE IDEA OF SUPPORTING STATE AND

LOCAL INNOVATION.

THAT IS IMPORTANT IN ADDITION TO

OTHER PIECES.

WHAT WE HAVE BEEN TALKING ABOUT

AND THINKING ABOUT IS WHICH OF

THE PROGRAMS THAT WE HAVE BEEN

WORKING ON ACTUALLY FIT INTO

THIS SPACE AND SHOULD BE PART OF

A NEW ESEA.

WE THINK IT IS IMPORTANT TO

CONTINUE THAT KIND OF

EVIDENCE-FOCUSED PROGRAM IN A

NEW LAW.

WE HAVE BEEN ABLE TO DO THAT

THROUGH APPROPRIATIONS LANGUAGE

FOR THE PAST FEW YEARS BUT IT

COULD BE GREAT TO SEE THAT IN A

NEW LAW AND PERMANENTLY

AUTHORIZED.

WE HAVE ALSO PROPOSED THROUGH

OUR 2016 BUDGET A NUMBER OF

PROGRAMS THAT ARE FOCUSED ON

THIS IDEA OF USING EVIDENCE AND

BUILDING EVIDENCE OF WHAT WORKS.

SO INCREASED FUNDING FOR I 3 IS

A BIG PIECE OF IT.

ANOTHER PIECE IS A SEPARATE IDEA

THAT WE HAVE BEEN PUTTING OUT

THERE AROUND HOW TO LEVERAGE

SOME OF THE EXISTING FEDERAL

FORMULA DOLLARS TO SUPPORT WHAT

WORKS.

SO IN OUR 2016 BUDGET IT WAS

$100 MILLION LEVERAGING WHAT

WORKS COMPETITION THAT WE

PROPOSED THAT WOULD HELP

DISTRICTS USE THEIR EXISTING

FEDERAL DOLLARS FOR ACTIVITIES

THAT HAVE EVIDENCE BASE.

THERE ARE ALMOST $15 BILLION IN

FUNDS THAT GO OUT TO SCHOOL

DISTRICTS AND NOT A LOT OF

EVIDENCE ABOUT WHAT THOSE HAVE

BEEN USED FOR OR HOW EFFECTIVE

THEY ARE.

THIS IDEA IS TO HAVE SOME FUNDS

THAT GO TO DISTRICTS WHO ARE

WILLING TO LEVERAGE THEIR

DOLLARS FOR PROFESSIONAL

DEVELOPMENT AND OTHER FEDERAL

FUNDS AND FOCUS THOSE RESOURCES

ON EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICES OR

TRY TO TAKE LARGER FEDERAL

FUNDING STREAMS THAT AREN’T

SMALLER TYPE PROGRAM AND GET

DISTRICTS TO THINK ABOUT HOW TO

USE THEM FOR EVIDENCE-BASED

ACTIVITIES.

THE THIRD PIECE IS I KNOW WE

HAVE A PROPOSAL ON OUR BUDGET

FOCUSED ON INCREASED FUNDS FOR

EVIDENCE-BASED INTERVENTIONS.

THAT IS SOMETHING WE WANT TO BE

IN THE RE-AUTHORIZATION

CONVERSATION IS HOW TO MAKE SURE

SOMETHING LIKE SIG WHERE

FOCUSING ON LOW PERFORMING

SCHOOLS AND MAKING SURE STATES

AND DISTRICTS ARE INVESTING

FUNDS IN THOSE SCHOOLS AND HOW

IT IS INCLUDED IN

RE-AUTHORIZATION.

SPECIFICALLY FOCUS ON

EVIDENCE-BASED STRATEGIES.

WE WOULD LOVE TO SEE SOMETHING

LIKE THAT MAKE IT INTO THE

RE-AUTHORIZATION.

>> WE WOULD, TOO.

GOOD LUCK WITH THAT.

THAT IS MARVELOUS.

>>> WHAT ABOUT ESEA WAIVERS?

WE GOT A QUESTION FROM PAUL IN

OHIO.

HOW CAN WE USE WAIVERS OR

PERHAPS A REAUTHORIZE ESEA TO

MAKE SURE STATES TEND TO FACTORS

THAT MEAN A GREAT DEAL

PARTICULARLY FOR STUDENTS WHO

ARE NEEDIEST AND IN DANGER OF

DROPPING OUT?

HOW CAN WE DRAW ATTENTION TO

RESEARCH AND ENCOURAGE THEM TO

PROVIDE SUPPORT TO ATTEND TO

THIS INFORMATION?

>> I THENG THAT IS ONE OF THE

THINGS WE HAVE BEEN EXCITED

ABOUT ABOUT THE WAIVER PROCESS

WITH STATES IT HAS BEEN ABLE TO

OPEN UNINNOVATION AT THE STATE

AND LOCAL LEVEL AND AVOID SOME

OF THE PRESCRIPTIVE MANDATES OF

NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND IN EXCHANGE

FOR MORE SOPHISTICATED SYSTEMS.

WE ARE EXCITED ABOUT WHAT WE

HAVE SEEN FROM STATES AND

DISTRICTS IN THIS AREA.

THE WAIVERS DO REQUIRE STATES TO

IDENTIFY LOWEST PERFORMING 5% OF

THE SCHOOLS, PRIORITY SCHOOLS

AND TAKE DRAMATIC ACTION TO TURN

THEM AROUND AND BUILD ON THE

PROGRAMS WITH IDEA OF KEY TURN

AROUND PRINCIPLES THAT NEED TO

BE APPLIED TALKING ABOUT

LEADERSHIP STAFFING, USE OF

DATA, NONACADEMIC SUPPORT AND

THINGS WE KNOW MATTER AND TRYING

TO ENCOURAGE STATES AND

DISTRICTS TO TAKE THOSE

FRAMEWORKS AND THEN BUILD

EVIDENCE INTO THAT WORK.

THE OTHER PIECE OF THIS IS IN

ADDITION TO LOWEST PERFORMING

SCHOOLS THROUGH WAIVERS STATES

ARE FOCUSING ON SCHOOLS WITH

LARGEST ACHIEVEMENT GAPS.

WHERE PARTICULAR GROUPS OF KIDS

ARE STRUGGLING WHETHER

HISTORICALLY LOW PERFORMING OR

SOMEWHAT HIGHER PERFORMING

COMPARED TO PEERS THERE ARE HUGE

GAPS AND NOT PERFORMING AS WELL

AS WHITE STUDENTS.

HOW CAN STATES AND DISTRICTS

IDENTIFY THOSE SCHOOLS AND THEN

TAKE ACTION TO HELP CLOSE THOSE

GAPS AND IMPROVE PERFORMANCE IN

PARTICULAR GROUPS OF KIDS?

STATES AND DISTRICTS HAVE TAKEN

THAT CHALLENGE ON.

IT IS DIFFICULT WORK.

IT IS NOT A LOT OF EVIDENCE YET

ABOUT SOME OF THE THINGS THAT

WORK FOR STRUGGLING GROUPS OF

STUDENTS.

IT’S EXCITING TO HEAR OTHERS

TALK ABOUT SOME OF THE WAYS THAT

A FEW DISTRICTS HAVE DONE THIS

AND THEN WE CAN FIGURE OUT I

THINK WE ARE IN A UNIQUE

POSITION IN A FEDERAL LEVEL TO

LINK PEOPLE TOGETHER AND SAY

SOMETHING IS REALLY WORKING IN

MASSACHUSETTS HOW DO WE HELP

THOSE PEOPLE OUT WITH SOMEBODY

IN MINNESOTA WHO IS TRYING TO DO

THE SAME KIND OF THING?

THAT IS A ROLE WE HAVE BEEN ABLE

TO PLAY WELL.

WE HAVE BEEN ABLE TO HELP THEM

LEARN FROM EACH OTHER AND FIGURE

OUT WHAT IS WORKING AND WHAT’S

NOT AND RATHER THAN HAVING THEM

ALWAYS LEARN FROM US OR FROM

SOME EXTERNAL EXPERT THEY CAN

LEARN FROM EACH OTHER.

>> THANK YOU SO MUCH.

>>> I WANT TO — IF ANYONE WANTS

TO WEIGH IN ON OTHER FEDERAL

INITIATIVES IN TERMS OF DOING

THE KINDS OF THINGS SCOTT WAS

TALKING ABOUT, HOW DO WE

LEVERAGE ATTENTION AND

INVESTMENT IN USING

EVIDENCE-BASED APPROACHES?

ANYONE WANT TO MAKE COMMENTS

HERE ABOUT THAT?

DAVE, I’M GOING TO TURN TO YOU.

CAN YOU TALK A LITTLE BIT ABOUT

CHICAGO PUBLIC SCHOOLS AND HOW

IT HAS USED SOME OF THE SCHOOL

IMPROVEMENT FUNDS TO SPREAD

INNOVATIONS ACROSS SCHOOLS?

>> SURE.

SO I’LL TALK A LITTLE ABOUT THE

NETWORK FOR COLLEGE SUCCESS

WHICH IS ONE OF OUR PARTNER

ORGANIZATIONS HERE IN CHICAGO.

AND YOU KNOW CHICAGO HAS HAD A

NUMBER OF SIG HIGH SCHOOLS OVER

THE LAST FEW YEARS AND THOSE

HIGH SCHOOLS IN SOME INSTANCES

HAVE BECOME REAL MODELS IN

CHICAGO ESPECIALLY AROUND THE ON

TRACK WORK FOR HOW TO DO THAT

WORK EFFECTIVELY.

THE FUNDS THAT THEY OBTAINED

THROUGH THOSE GRANTS ENABLED

THEM TO REALLY DO SOME VERY

INTENSIVE WORK AROUND BUILDING

THE KIND OF SUPPORT THAT THE

ADULTS IN THE BUILDING NEEDED

FIRST AND FOREMOST TO DO THE

WORK OF REALLY MAKING SENSE OUT

OF THE DATA THAT THEY WERE

TRACKING BUT THEN ALSO TO PULL

IN THE SUPPORT STAFF.

BOB MENTIONED THE IMPORTANCE OF

SORT OF BRINGING IN ADDITIONAL

RESOURCES WHEN YOU FIND YOURSELF

FACING PROBLEMS THAT ARE BEYOND

THE SCOPE OF WHAT THE SET OF

INDIVIDUALS THAT YOU HAVE

ACTUALLY GOT ON STAFF ALREADY

ARE TRAINED TO HANDLE OR CAN

HANDLE IN TERMS OF THEIR

COGNITIVE CAPACITY.

THERE ARE ONLY SO MANY THINGS AN

ADULT CAN DO IN A DAY.

THE MONEY ENABLED THE SCHOOLS TO

BRING IN ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

AND DEVELOP NOVEL WAYS OF

COORDINATING THOSE RESOURCES

WITH TEAMS OF TEACHERS.

WE HAVE SEEN IN A HANDFUL OF

INSTANCES NOW BECAUSE OF THE

STRUCTURE IN CHICAGO BOTH AT THE

DISTRICT LEVEL WHERE HIGH

SCHOOLS ARE LENGED TOGETHER WITH

ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS IN GEOGRAPHIC

NETWORKS BUT ALSO BECAUSE OF

HIGH SCHOOLS THEMSELVES OFTEN

TIMES VOLUNTARILY ARE LINKED

TOGETHER IN PROFESSIONAL

LEARNING COMMUNITIES.

THE NETWORK FOR COLLEGE SUCCESS

KWOERDINATES ONE OF THOSE BUT

THERE ARE OTHERS THAT ARE HOME

GROWN.

SIG SCHOOLS HAVE REALLY BEEN

LEADERS IN A LOT OF INSTANCES IN

THE NETWORKS.

I THINK WE HOLD UP OFTEN TIMES

IN TALKING ABOUT THIS THE

EXAMPLE OF HANCOCK HIGH SCHOOL

WHICH IS A HIGH SCHOOL WE KNOW

FAIRLY WELL IN CHICAGO.

IT’S A SCHOOL SERVING

PREDOMINANTLY LOW INCOME AND

LATINO POPULATION.

IT HAS BEEN AMONG VANGUARD OF

SCHOOLS THAT HAVE PRODUCED

DRAMATIC RESULTS ON ON TRACK,

NOT THE LEAST OF WHICH HAS BEEN

OVER THE LAST FEW YEARS POSTING

A 90 PLUS PERCENT ON TRACK RATE

AMONG NINTH GRADERS.

THEY HAVE REALLY BEEN A REAL

IMPORTANT SITE OF LEARNING FOR

OTHER SCHOOLS AND THE MONEY IN A

LOT OF WAYS I THINK HAS SERVED

AS AN IMPORTANT KIND OF CATALYST

NOT JUST FOR DEVELOPING THOSE

NOVEL SYSTEMATIC APPROACHES,

THOSE STRUCTURES, THOSE

OPPORTUNITIES FOR TEACHERS TO

MEET AND BREAK OUT OF THE

DEPARTMENTALIZED STRUCTURE, BUT

ALSO TO REALLY CREATE THE KINDS

OF OPPORTUNITIES FOR ADULTS TO

LEARN FROM EACH OTHER ACROSS

SCHOOLS.

I THINK AS MUCH SILOING AS GOES

ON INSIDE THE SORT OF SINGLE

OFTEN LARGE URBAN PUBLIC SCHOOL

THERE IS A GREAT DEAL OF SILOING

THAT HAPPENS IN THE SENSE THAT

SCHOOLS DON’T LEARN VERY WELL

FROM EACH OTHER.

AND THAT’S FOR A VARIETY OF

REASONS, SOME OF THEM

ORGANIZATIONAL AND SOME FRANKLY

JUST LOGISTIC.

I THINK WHERE WE HAVE SEEN A

GREAT SERVICE FOR THE PUBLIC

SCHOOLS IN CHICAGO HAS BEEN

WHERE IT HAS ENABLED SCHOOLS TO

REACH BEYOND NOT JUST IN TERMS

OF LESSONS FROM OTHERS BUT

THINGS THEY ARE ABLE TO SHARE

WITH THE OTHER SCHOOLS, AS WELL.

>> RON?

>> I THINK ABOUT THIS A LOT

AROUND SCHOOL TO SCHOOL.

SOMETIMES WE SET UP SITUATIONS

WHERE THERE IS THE WINNER AND

LOSER.

AND THAT DOESN’T BODE WELL FOR

ADULT LEARNING.

WHAT I WAS INTRIGUED IN THE

CONVERSATION WITH BOB BEFORE WAS

THIS NOTION OF THERE IS

IDENTIFYING THE CHALLENGE WELL

AND UNDERSTANDING THE HUMAN

CAPACITY WITHIN THE SCHOOLS TO

ADDRESS THAT CHALLENGE AND THEN

FIGURING OUT THE RIGHT

INTERVENTION TO DO THAT.

WHAT BECOMES INTERESTING IS

OFTEN SCHOOLS ARE LUMPED

TOGETHER AS CHALLENGED SCHOOLS

BUT ARE OFTEN CHALLENGED IN

DIFFERENT WAYS.

AND THE NOTION OF LEARNING

TOGETHER, OF PROBLEM SOLVING

TOGETHER RATHER THAN LEARNING

FROM IS AN INTERESTING CONCEPT I

THINK ABOUT.

SO IS THERE A WAY TO INCENT WHAT

MAY SEEM COUNTER INTUITIVE WHICH

ARE STRUGGLING SCHOOLS

STRUGGLING AROUND DIFFERENT

THINGS TO COME TOGETHER TO LEARN

TOGETHER?

AND I DON’T KNOW THAT THAT IS

POSSIBLE BUT I FIND IT AN

INTRIGUING IDEA.

>> ON THAT POINT ONE OF THE

THINGS IN OUR CROSS DISTRICT

NETWORK IN 12 BIG DISTRICTS

ABOUT 50 SCHOOLS.

AND THE THING THAT EVOLVES

THROUGH THAT WORK WAS OUR

PRINCIPALS NETWORK WHERE WE

BRING PRINCIPALS TOGETHER FROM

TEN DIFFERENT DISTRICTS AND THEY

ARE ESSENTIALLY DOING THAT, ALL

IDENTIFIED AS LOW-PERFORMING

SCHOOLS AND HAVE DIFFERENT

PROBLEMS AND ARE LEARNING AND

SHARING WITH EACH OTHER.

THEY HAVE STARTED TAKING ON A

BROAD-THEMED ANNUAL PROJECT THAT

THEY APPROACH IN DIFFERENT WAYS.

THIS YEAR LOOKING AT HOW TO

REDUCE COURSE FAILURE FROM THE

DATA.

EACH HAS A DIFFERENT STORY IN

THEIR SCHOOL HOW IT IMPACTS

THEM.

IT’S NOT THE SAME.

THEY ARE WORKING IT AND SHARING

IT WITH EACH OTHER.

ONE THING THEY REPORTED SAYING

IS THAT IT IS DIFFICULT FOR THEM

TO NETWORK IN THEIR OWN DISTRICT

BECAUSE YOU ARE FROM A LOW

PERFORMING SCHOOL WHAT CAN WE

LEARN FROM YOU?

BY HAVING THEM BAN TOGETHER THEY

CREATE A LEARNING COMMUNITY AND

A LOT OF PROFESSIONAL GROWTH AND

SHARING.

>> OFTEN TIMES I HEAR THEIR

DEMOGRAPHICS ARE DIFFERENT.

SO REALLY THINKING ABOUT ARE WE

STRUGGLING WITH DIFFERENT TYPES

OF STUDENTS DO WE HAVE DIFFERENT

THINGS TO LEARN WITH EACH OTHER?

THE DEMOGRAPHICS ARE SIMILAR.

THERE IS A LIKELIHOOD THAT THEY

COULD APPLY THINGS DIFFERENTLY

WITHIN THEIR SCHOOLS.

>> IS THERE A PROBLEM WHEN YOU

ARE DOING THIS KIND OF

NETWORKING IN INSURING FIDELITY

TO WHATEVER THE EVIDENCE-BASED

REFORM IS.

YOU TALKT ABOUT IN ORDER TO DO

STANDARDIZATION WE ARE LOOKING

AT A LOT OF PROMISE AROUND

NETWORKS AS A POWERFUL VEHICLE

FOR ADULT LEARNING?

AND THEN WE HAVE THE QUESTION

ABOUT TRYING TO INFUSE THESE

EVIDENCE-BASED APPROACHES IN

MODELS.

THERE IS A LOT OF DIFFERENT

PIECES TO THIS.

CAN ANYBODY GIVE ME INSIGHT INTO

HOW YOU ARE THINKING ABOUT IT TO

BALANCE THE TENSION ACROSS SOME

OF THE ASPECTS OF GOOD, SOLID

REFORM?

>> I OFTEN THINK OF THE

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN REPLICATING

SOMETHING AND ENGAGING IN THE

SAME TYPE OF QUESTIONING OF

SOMETHING.

AND I DO THINK THERE IS A BIT OF

A DIFFERENCE THERE.

SO YOU HAVE A PROBLEM THAT

YOU’RE TRYING TO FIND A SOLUTION

TO.

YOU COULD SAY IF YOU DID A

THROUGH Z YOU WILL SOLVE THAT

PROBLEM AND THEN CHECKING TO SEE

WHETHER A THROUGH Z IS DONE AND

IN SOME CASES THAT WORKS.

IN OTHER CASES IT’S HERE IS A

SERIES OF POTENTIAL QUESTIONS

THAT COULD LEAD YOU DOWN VARIOUS

ROADS TO GET TO THAT OUTCOME AS

YOU ENGAGE IN THESE QUESTIONS

WHAT IS YOUR PLAN AND THEN HOW

DO YOU KNOW WHETHER OR NOT YOU

ARE MOVING TOWARDS THE OUTCOME

AND HOLDING FIDELITY TO THAT

WHILE COLLECTING EVIDENCE OF

PROGRESS IS ANOTHER WAY TO THINK

ABOUT THAT PARTICULAR —

>> SO YOU ARE ADHERING TO A

PROCESS OF INQUIRY WHERE YOU ARE

CONSTANTLY CHECKING WITH THE

DATA AND COURSE CORRECTING AS

NEEDED?

>> AND BEING HELD TO THAT COURSE

CORRECTION.

THE ACCOUNTABILITY TO YOUR

ANALYSIS AND COURSE CORRECTION.

>> MAKE THOSE CHANGES BECAUSE

DATA TELLS YOU IT IS NOT

WORKING.

>> ANY OTHER FINAL COMMENTS?

WE WERE JUST ABOUT OUT OF TIME.

>> I GUESS ONE THING I WOULD ADD

TOO, IS IT IS IMPORTANT TO HAVE

THIS PERSONALIZATION BUT ALSO

SYSTEMATIC APPROACH THAT IT IS

BETWEEN INNOVATION AND

ACCOUNTABILITY.

DO YOU NEED ACCOUNTABILITY TO

TELL YOU WHERE TO DIRECT

INNOVATIONS?

THEY CAN’T KEEP DOING THE SAME

THING.

YOU NEED TO STRUCTURE

ACCOUNTABILITY SYSTEMS TO ALLOW

FOR INNOVATION TO HAPPEN.

YOU HAVE TO LOOK AT THAT

DIALOGUE RIGHT AND YOU CREATE A

POWERFUL WAY TO GO FORWARD.

ACCOUNTABILITY TELLS YOU WHERE

TO GO AND ARE YOU MAKING A

DIFFERENCE?

ARE YOU ON THE RIGHT COURSE?

THEN STRUCTURE THE

ACCOUNTABILITY SO IT DOESN’T SAY

ONLY ONE SOLUTION.

>> DAVID, ANY FINAL COMMENTS?

>> NOTHING TO SAY BEYOND WHAT’S

ALREADY BEEN SAID EXCEPT TO

THANK EVERYBODY FOR OFFERING THE

THOUGHTS AND IN SO MANY

DIFFERENT WAYS I FEEL LIKE THIS

IS AN EXTREMELY HEARTENING

DISCUSSION FOR US IN CHICAGO.

WE HAVE WATCHED A LOT OF THESE

THINGS UNFOLDING IN OTHER

DISTRICTS AND WITH THE EFFORTS

OF SIMILAR ORGANIZATIONS AROUND

THE COUNTRY AND IT IS EXTREMELY

EXCITING TO HEAR SUCH POSITIVE

RESULTS FROM OTHER FOLKS.

>> THANK YOU.

>>> SO THAT’S ALL THE TIME WE

HAVE TODAY.

IF YOU MISSED ANY PART OF

TODAY’S WEBINAR YOU CAN WATCHED

THE ARCHIVED VIDEO.

AND I INVITE YOU TO FOLLOW THE

ALLIANCE ON TWITTER AND ON

FACEBOOK ON

FACEBOOK.COM/ALLFORED.

THE CODE WORD FOR TODAY’S

WEBINAR IS RESEARCH.

ENTER THAT CODE WORD TOWARDS THE

BOTTOM OF THE WEBINAR PAGE TO

EARN EXTRA POINTS AND WORK YOUR

WAY TOWARDS BADGES IN THE ACTION

ACADEMY.

HAVE A GREAT AFTERNOON.

>> IF WE CAN START TO REFERENCE

THESE IDEAS ON A REGULAR BASIS

AND CRYSTALLIZE AND GET THEM

RIGHT.

THAT IS WHY I NEED TO GO BACK

AND MAYBE GET ASSISTANCE.

SO WE CAN SHARE THAT WITH THE

ADVOCACY STAFF.

THANK YOU.

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