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Assessments of Deeper Learning: The Costs and the Benefits

Webinar:


Panelists
Linda Darling-Hammond, EdD, Charles E. Ducommun Professor of Education,
Stanford University; Director, Stanford Center for Opportunity Policy in Education
Dennis Van Roekel, President, National Education Association
Gene Wilhoit, Partner, Student Achievement Partners
Bob Wise, President, Alliance for Excellent Education

The Common Core State Standards will require new assessments that measure students’ abilities to design and conduct investigations, analyze data, draw valid conclusions, and report findings—the kinds of deeper learning competencies necessary in the twenty-first century. But developing these new assessments poses challenges, particularly around funding. How can states and districts support the development and implementation of new assessments that might be more costly than current tests? What might make these assessments more affordable?

The Alliance for Excellent Education held a webinar to explore findings from a new study from the Center for Opportunity Policy in Education (SCOPE) at Stanford University that answers questions related to the challenges posed by new Common Core State Standards assessment requirements. It provides data on what states and districts currently spend on tests, showing that education systems currently spend more than is commonly believed. And it offers options for reducing costs for high-quality assessments.

Linda Darling-Hammond, director of SCOPE and coauthor of the study, explained the study and its findings. Gene Wilhoit, partner with Student Achievement Partners, and Dennis Van Roekel, president of the National Education Association, discussed its implications for state policy. Bob Wise, president of the Alliance and former governor of West Virginia, moderated the discussion.

Supplemental Material

This webinar is made possible with support from the
William and Flora Hewlett Foundation.

 The Alliance for Excellent Education is a Washington, DC-based national policy and advocacy organization that works to improve national and federal policy so that all students can achieve at high academic levels and graduate from high school ready for success in college, work, and citizenship in the twenty-first century. For more information about the Alliance, visit www.all4ed.com.

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>>> GOOD AFTERNOON. MY NAME IS BOB WISE, AND I’M PRESIDENT OF THE ALLIANCE FOR EXCELLENT EDUCATION, A NONPROFIT POLICY AND ADVOCACY ORGANIZATION IN WASHINGTON, D.C. I’M GOING TO BE YOUR HOST TODAY FOR WHAT IS A VERY, VERY IMPORTANT DISCUSSION. WE’RE VERY GLAD THAT YOU’VE JOINED US FOR THIS NEXT HOUR AS WE EXAMINE CRITICAL NEW RESEARCH ON ASSESSMENTS THAT HAVE KBLIX IMPLICATIONS FOR EVERY STATE. I WANT TO ENCOURAGE YOU TO JOIN THIS CONVERSATION ON TWITTER USING THE HASH TAG #ALLFORED. AS I’M SURE YOU KNOW, THE COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS ADOPTED NOW BY 46 STATES AND THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA CALL FOR SUBSTANTIALLY HIGHER EXPECTATIONS FOR STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT THAN THOSE PREVIOUS STATE STANDARDS. AND THESE STANDARDS INCIDENTALLY NOW COVER 90% OF ALL OF AMERICA’S STUDENTS. SPECIFICALLY THE STANDARDS ASK STUDENTS NOT ONLY TO DEMONSTRATE THAT THEY UNDERSTAND CORE CONTENT, BUT ALSO BE ABLE TO USE THEIR KNOWLEDGE TO THINK CRITICALLY AND CREATIVELY, SOLVE COMPLEX PROBLEMS AND COMMUNICATE EFFECTIVELY. THESE DEEPER LEARNING COMPETENCIES ARE VITAL TO ENSURE THAT STUDENTS CAN SUCCEED IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY AND BECOME ACTIVE CITIZENS IN A COMPLEX WORLD. THESE STANDARDS ARE WORTH THE ASPIRATIONS. BUT NOW WE’RE MOVING FROM ASPIRATIONS TO IMPLEMENTATION. AND A KEY PART OF THE IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS IS THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW ASSESSMENTS THAT TRULY MEASURE THESE DEEPER LEARNING COMPETENCIES. AS WE KNOW, TEACHERS AND STUDENTS PAY A LOT OF ATTENTION TO WHAT’S TESTED. AND IF THE TESTS DON’T MEASURE WHAT THE STANDARDS EXPECT, THEN THE LOFTY ASPIRATIONS OF THE STANDARDS WILL NOT BE REALIZED. SOME POLICYMAKERS ARE CONCERNED THAT ASSESSMENTS THAT MEASURE THE FULL RANGE OF KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS, THE STANDARDS EXPECT MIGHT BE TOO COSTLY. BUT HOW MUCH ARE STATES AND DISTRICTS CURRENTLY SPENDING ON ASSESSMENTS? CAN THESE NEW ASSESSMENTS BE IMPLEMENTED IN A MORE COST-EFFECTIVE WAY? AND DO THE BENEFITS OUTWEIGH ANY PROSPECTIVE COSTS? A NEW REPORT BY THE STANFORD CENTER FOR OPPORTUNITY POLICY AND EDUCATION OR S.C.O.P.E., S-C-O-P-E, PROVIDES ANSWERS TO THESE QUESTIONS. AND WE’RE VERY FORTUNATE TO HAVE WITH US THE LEAD AUTHOR OF THAT REPORT. DR. LINDA DARLING HAMMOND, PROFESSOR THE EDUCATION AT STANFORD AND DIRECTOR OF S.C.O.P.E. AS WELL AS STUDYING EXTENSIVELY THE ASSESSMENT POLICIES IN THE UNITED STATES AND AROUND THE WORLD. ALSO JOINING US IS DENNIS VAN ROEKLE. THE ASSESSMENTS OF STATES ARE IMPLEMENTING WILL HAVE A STRONG INFLUENCE ON TEACHER PRACTICE. AND DENNIS CAN SPEAK TO THE TEACHERS’ NEEDS TO GET THESE RIGHT AS WELL AS WHAT THE TEACHERS’ NEEDS ARE. AND ALSO JOINING US BY PHONE IS GENE WILLHOYT, FORMER EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR OF THE COUNCIL OF CHIEF STATE SCHOOL OFFICERS. HE’S PLAYED A LEAD ROLE IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND ADOPTION OF THE COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS AND CONTINUES TO BE ACTIVE IN THAT AREA. GENE, I’M SURE, HAS SOME INSIGHTS ON THE IMPLICATIONS OF THIS REPORT FOR STATE OFFICIALS. WE ALSO LOOK FORWARD TO YOUR PARTICIPATION, OUR AUDIENCE. IF YOU HAVE A QUESTION DURING THIS WEBCAST, YOU CAN ASK IT USING THE BOX FOR THIS VIDEO WINDOW. WE WILL GO TO THESE QUESTIONS FROM TIME TO TIME TO ANSWER WHAT’S ON YOUR MIND. BUT PLEASE KNOW THAT WE WILL NOT BE ABLE TO GET TO EVERY QUESTION. IN FACT, WE’VE ALREADY RECEIVED DOZENS OF QUESTIONS BEFORE THIS WEBCAST STARTED, BUT FEEL FREE TO SUBMIT IT. A NUMBER OF QUESTIONS THAT COME IN DURING THE WEBCAST ARE ASKED. WITH THESE PRELIMINARIES OUT OF THE WAY, LET’S TURN TO LINDA AND HER REPORT. LINDA, IN FACT, I BELIEVE YOU’RE RELEASING IT TODAY, AREN’T YOU? I CONSIDER THIS REPORT IS GOING TO BE SEMINAL IN A LOT OF DISCUSSION THAT GOES FORWARD ON THE SUCCESSFUL IMPLEMENTATION OF NOT ONLY SMARTER BALANCE BUT ALSO ASSESSMENTS GENERALLY AND WHAT WE CAN EXPECT FROM THEM PARTICULARLY WITH THE COMMON CORE STANDARDS BEING IMPLEMENTED.
>> I REALLY APPRECIATE THIS OPPORTUNITY TO TALK ABOUT THE STUDY. IT IS A CRITICAL TIME. THE IMPLEMENTATION OF COMMON CORE STANDARDS IS ON THE MINDS OF MOST EDUCATORS IN MOST PARTS OF THE COUNTRY. TWO CONSORTIA HAVE BEEN CREATED, AND THEY ARE CRANKING AWAY AND PRODUCING PILOTS AND FIELD TESTS AND SO ON. AND THERE’S WORK GOING ON IN CLASSROOMS AND DISTRICTS AROUND THE COUNTRY AS TEACHERS ARE TAKING UP THE STANDARDS, LOOKING AT HOW THEY MIGHT ROLL OUT AND THINKING ABOUT HOW TO TRANSFORM INSTRUCTION. ONE OF THE KEY QUESTIONS IS WHAT ARE THE COSTS OF NEW ASSESSMENTS. WE ALSO WANT TO ASK THE QUESTION, WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF ASSESSING AND SUPPORTING STUDENTS AND TEACHERS IN DIFFERENT WAYS. SO THIS REPORT TAKES UP THAT QUESTION. WE PARTNERED WITH THE ASSESSMENT SOLUTION GROUP WHICH IS AN ORGANIZATION THAT DOES A LOT OF ANALYSES OF THE FORMATS OF ASSESSMENTS AND THE WAYS IN WHICH THEY ARE DESIGNED AND HOW ONE CAN AFFORD THEM. AND I GUESS WE START FROM THE PRESUMPTION THAT AS THE COMMON CORE STANDARDS SUGGEST, HIGH-QUALITY ASSESSMENTS ARE REALLY NEEDED TO EVALUATE THE SKILLS THAT ARE REQUIRED BY TODAY’S SOCIETY. THAT’S KIND OF THE WHOLE PRESUMPTION OF THIS EFFORT THAT SO MANY PEOPLE ARE UNDERTAKING. THE SLIDE THAT SHOWS THIS PERHAPS BEST IS ONE THAT SHOWS THE CHANGING DEMAND FOR JOB SKILLS. THIS COMES FROM AN ECONOMIST AND HIS COLLEAGUE, FRANK LEVY WHERE THEY FOUND THAT WHAT WAS INCREASING MOST RAPIDLY WAS THE DEMAND FOR SKILLS THAT MEASURE COMPLEX COMMUNICATION ABILITY IN SKILLS AS WELL AS EXPERT THINKING. YOU KNOW, HIGHER ORDER COGNITIVE SKILLS. VERY STEEP DECLINE IN THE ECONOMY FOR THE DEMAND FOR ROUTINE SKILLS. WHEN I GREW UP IN CLEVELAND, OHIO, IT WAS A FACTORY TOWN. PEOPLE COULD GO GET A JOB, A GOOD JOB IN THE FACTORY, WITH LITTLE MORE THAN A HIGH SCHOOL EDUCATION, PERHAPS NOT EVEN THAT. KIND OF ON THE ASSEMBLY LINE DOING THE SAME THING OVER AND OVER AGAIN, MAKE A GOOD SALARY, GET A HOUSE, RAISE A FAMILY. THOSE JOBS ARE GONE. THEY’RE GOING AWAY VERY FAST. AND THE JOBS THAT ARE REPLACING THEM REQUIRE THESE MORE NONROUTINE SKILLS. ONE WAY OF THINKING ABOUT — WHAT DO WE MEAN BY HIGHER ORDER SKILLS, FAMILIAR SKILLS TO EDUCATORS. FOR THOSE WHO HAVEN’T SEEN IT BEFORE, WE SHOW HERE THAT THE BASE OF THE FOUNDATION IS KNOWLEDGE, KNOWING ABOUT THINGS, BEING ABLE TO RECOGNIZE AND RECALL IDEAS. BUT TO REALLY BE ABLE TO USE THE KNOWLEDGE SO THAT IT’S VALUABLE. YOU HAVE TO COMPREHEND IT, APPLY IT, EVALUATE, SYNTHESIZE, ANALYZE INFORMATION. THOSE ARE THE HIGHER ORDER SKILLS. UNFORTUNATELY, U.S. TESTS OVER THE LAST 10 OR 15 YEARS IN PARTICULAR HAVE FOCUSED ON LOWER-LEVEL SKILLS. ONE THING THAT HAPPENED THAT WE’RE JUST BEGINNING TO KIND OF REALIZE NOW IS THAT WHEN NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND WAS PASSED, THERE WAS A REQUIREMENT WHICH HAD SOME VIRTUES THAT EVERY CHILD BE TESTED EVERY YEAR SO YOU COULD TRACK PROGRESS, AGGREGATE THE DATA. BUT ONE EFFECT OF THAT, BECAUSE WE DIDN’T ADD A LOT OF INVESTMENT, WAS THAT MANY STATES GOT RID OF PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS THAT THEY HAD BEEN USING WHERE KIDS HAD TO APPLY THE KNOWLEDGE, WRITE THINGS, DEMONSTRATE WHAT THEY KNEW IN A VARIETY OF WAYS. AND THE TESTS BECAME ALMOST EXCLUSIVELY MULTIPLE CHOICE BECAUSE IT’S LESS EXPENSIVE. AND THAT’S HOW MANY STATES DEALT WITH THAT REQUIREMENT. THERE’S A NEW STUDY THAT CAME OUT OF THE RAND CORPORATION WHICH SHOWED THAT FOR THE 17 STATE ZS WITH THE MOST RIGOROUS STANDARDS AND TESTS, ONLY 2% OF MATH ITEMS MEASURE HIGHER ORDER SKILLS. AND ONLY ABOUT 21% OF ITEMS OF ENGLISH AND LANGUAGE ARTS TESTS. WE’RE MISSING THE MARK WITH RESPECT TO HIGHER ORDER SKILLS THAT ARE REALLY THE FOUNDATION OF THE COMMON CORE STANDARDS. AND IN ORDER TO MEASURE THE STANDARDS, WE’RE GOING TO HAVE TO EVOLVE ASSESSMENTS IN SOME NEW DIRECTION. THAT’S HAPPENING ALL AROUND THE WORLD. OTHER NATIONS ARE TRANSFORMING CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENTS. IF YOU LOOK AT THE HIGHEST PERFORMERS ON ASSESSMENTS LIKE FINLAND, SINGAPORE, NEW ZEALAND, HONG KONG, AUSTRALIA, THEY HAVE TRADITIONALLY USED MORE OPEN-ENDED APPROACHES TO ASSESSMENTS. TYPICALLY ESSAY TESTS THAT STUDENTS WRITE RESPONSES TO OR OPEN-ENDED PROBLEMS WITH MULTIPLE STEPS IN MATHEMATICS THAT THEY HAVE TO SOLVE AND EXPLAIN THEIR SOLUTIONS TO. BUT THEY’RE ALSO ADDING EVEN DEEPER LEARNING ASSESSMENTS WHICH ARE PROJECT-BASED ELEMENTS OF CURRICULA THAT REQUIRE STUDENTS TO DESIGN INVESTIGATIONS AND COLLECT DATA AND EXPLAIN THE CONCLUSIONS. AND THOSE ARE ALSO SCORED AS PART OF THE EXAMINATION SYSTEM IN PLACES LIKE AUSTRALIA, THE UK, SINGAPORE AND SO ON. THEY OFTEN HAVE TO PRESENT THEIR DATA WITH TECHNOLOGY AND ORALLY AS WELL AS IN WRITING. THOSE ARE THE SKILLS THAT THE COMMON CORE STANDARDS CALL OUT. BUT THE QUESTION WE HAVE IN THIS COUNTRY IS HOW COULD WE DO THAT? COULD WE DO THAT KIND OF ASSESSMENT, AND COULD WE AFFORD TO DO IT GIVEN THAT WE HAVE A DIFFERENT TRADITION WITH RESPECT TO THE KIND OF TESTS THAT WE’VE BEEN USING? WHAT WE FIND IN LOOKING AT THOSE ASSESSMENTS AROUND THE WORLD, THERE’S BEEN A LOT OF RESEARCH ON WHAT’S BEEN GOING ON IN THESE COUNTRIES. NUMBER ONE, THEY CAN BE RELYIABLY SCORED. THAT WAS AN ISSUE. IN COUNTRIES AND FOR THAT MATTER IN THOSE STATES THAT WORKED ON THESE KINDS OF ASSESSMENTS, THEY DID LEARN HOW TO RELIABLY SCORE THEM. THE OTHER VIRTUE IS YOU THINK ABOUT THE BENEFITS OF TESTING AS WELL AS THE COSTS, THAT TEACHERS BECOME VERY KNOWLEDGEABLE ABOUT THE STANDARDS. ABOUT HOW TO TEACH STANDARDS, ABOUT HOW TO DESIGN THE CURRICULUM. TO MEET THE STANDARDS BECAUSE THEY’RE ACTUALLY INVOLVED IN DESIGNING AND SCORING THESE OPEN-ENDED ASSESSMENTS, THEY CAN SEE WHAT GOOD WORK LOOKS LIKE. THEY CAN THINK ABOUT WHAT KIDS DEMONSTRATE ABOUT THEIR THINKING AND KNOWLEDGE AND THEY CAN MAP THAT ONTO THEIR OWN CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION. AND SO WE FIND THAT WITH ASSESSMENT SUPPORTS MORE RIGOROUS INSTRUCTION AND MORE INTENSIVE LEARNING. SO WE NEED TO THINK AS WE MOVE FORWARD ABOUT BOTH THESE BENEFITS AND THE COSTS OF THE ASSESSMENTS. CHANGE IS ON THE HORIZON IN THE UNITED STATES. YOU ALREADY MENTIONED, BOB, THE COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS WHICH PAY MORE ATTENTION TO DEEPER LEARNING. I MENTIONED BRIEFLY THE TWO NEW ASSESSMENT CONSORTIA, SMARTER BALANCE CONSORTIA KNOWN AS SMARTER BALANCE. WE SOMETIMES WONDER, YOU KNOW, WHO IN THE CONSORTIUM IS WHO IS SMARTER AND WHO IS MORE BALANCED. WE ALSO HAVE A PART CONSORTIUM WHICH IS THE PARTNERSHIP FOR ASSESSING READINESS FOR COLLEGE AND CAREERS. THESE STATES ARE COMING TOGETHER TO DEVELOP A NEW GENERATION OF ASSESSMENTS. THEY DO HAVE SOME OF THESE ELEMENTS THAT WE’RE TALKING ABOUT. AND SOME STATES ARE GOING BACK TO THE REINTRODUCTION OF THE KIND OF ROBUST PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT THAT THEY HAD IN THE 1990s. SO THAT THEY CAN EVALUATE THESE KINDS OF SKILLS. TO GIVE YOU AN IDEA OF WHAT THE NEW ASSESSMENTS ARE TRYING TO TAP, THERE’S ONE ITEM SHOWN ON THE NEXT SLIDE WHICH COMES FROM THE SMARTER BALANCED ASSESSMENTS. IT’S A SIXTH GRADE TEST. INSTEAD OF ADDING A COUPLE OF NUMBERS OR MULTIPLY A COUPLE OF NUMBERS AND GIVE AN ANSWER, THEY’RE ACTUALLY PUT IN A REAL. WORLD SITUATION. THE SITUATION IS TO PLAN A FIELD TRIP. STUDENTS ARE ASKED TO FIRST EVALUATE AND VOTE ON SOME OPTIONS FOR FIELD TRIPS. THEY TALK ABOUT WHAT A FIELD TRIP IS AND WHY YOU TAKE THEM AND WHERE YOU MIGHT WANT TO GO. AND THEN THEY’RE ASKED TO INDIVIDUALLY RECOMMEND WHERE THE CLASS SHOULD GO BASED ON THE VOTES. AND YOU SEE THEM BROKEN DOWN BY BOYS AND GIRLS AND DIFFERENT WAYS. BUT THEN THEY GET THE COSTS. AND THEY HAVE TO EVALUATE WHAT IT COSTS FOR THE BUS RIDE, THE TICKETS, HOW FAR AWAY IT IS. THEY USE ALL OF THAT INFORMATION, THEN, TO EVALUATE A HYPOTHETICAL RECOMMENDATION ABOUT GOING TO THE ZOO. AND THEN THEIR FINAL TEST IS TO MAKE A RECOMMENDATION BASED ON PREFERENCES, COSTS AND ALL THE OTHER MATHEMATICS THAT THEY’VE PERFORMED TO THEIR TEACHER. SO THEY HAVE TO APPLY THE MATH. THEY HAVE TO REASON WITH IT. THEY HAVE TO EXPLAIN THEIR REASONING. AND THAT KIND OF TASK IS WHAT YOU CAN EXPECT TO SEE IN THE ASSESSMENT CONSORTIA. YOU’LL ALSO SEE TESTS WHERE STUDENTS ARE ASKED TO RESEARCH SOMETHING. PERHAPS IN ONE CASE THEY’RE AN INTERN FOR A CONGRESSPERSON. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT IS COMING TO THE STATE. SHOULD I SUPPORT IT? GO GET ME INFORMATION. I NEED IT BY THIS AFTERNOON. THAT’S HOW CONGRESS WORKS, ISN’T IT, BOB? STUDENTS HAVE TO GO ON THE WEB, FIND THE INFORMATION, LIST PROS AND CONS OF NUCLEAR POWER, EVALUATE THE CREDIBILITY OF THE SOURCES, WHICH ONES ARE MORE CREDIBLE, WHICH ONES ARE LESS CREDIBLE AND WHY. COME BACK TO THE CONGRESSPERSON WITH THIS RESEARCH WHO THEN SAYS I DON’T HAVE TIME TO LOOK AT YOUR RESEARCH. I HAVE TO VOTE. WRITE ME A POLICY POSITION. I’VE GOT TO MAKE A SPEECH, AND TELL ME WHAT I SHOULD DO BASED ON THE EVIDENCE AND TAKE INTO ACCOUNT THE OTHER PERSPECTIVES. SO THESE ARE THE KINDS OF ASSESSMENTS THAT I THINK MEASURE THE COMMON CORE. BUT THE REAL QUESTION THAT WE’RE CONFRONTING NOW IS CAN THESE KIND OF HIGH-QUALITY ASSESSMENTS BECOME FEASIBLE, AND CAN THEY BECOME AFFORDABLE? AND HOW SHOULD WE THINK ABOUT THAT? AND THAT’S WHERE THE STUDY CAME IN. WE LOOKED AT WHAT THE COSTS OF CURRENT ASSESSMENTS ARE, WHAT THEY MIGHT BE UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF STATES COMING TOGETHER AND CONSORTIA. WHAT THE COSTS ARE OF WHAT STATES AND LOCAL DISTRICTS ARE DOING NOW. AND SO AS I MENTIONED, AS WE EVALUATE THESE COSTS AND BENEFITS, STATES HAVE TENDED TO LOOK FOR INEXPENSIVE OPTIONS BECAUSE OF THE EVERY CHILD, EVERY YEAR REQUIREMENT. ON AVERAGE WE FOUND BOTH IN THE ASG STUDY I MENTIONED AND ANOTHER ONE, STATES ARE SPENDING ABOUT $25 A PUPIL ON THEIR MATH AND ENGLISH AND LANGUAGE ARTS TESTS. WHAT’S INTERESTING ABOUT THAT IS WHAT A TINY SHARE OF THE EDUCATION BUDGET THAT IS, WE SPEND ABOUT $10,000 PER PUPIL ON EDUCATION. $25 IS ABOUT ONE QUARTER OF 1%. IF YOU JUST COMPARE THAT TO THE FACT THAT IF YOU HAD A USED CAR THAT YOU BOUGHT FOR $10,000, YOU’D SPEND 50 #$500 A YEAR PROBABLY LOOKING UNDER THE HOOD, DOING THE TESTS THAT YOU NEED ABOUT YOUR FLUIDS AND YOUR BRAKES AND EVERYTHING ELSE, WHICH IS MANY TIMES MORE. BUT WE’RE SPENDING THIS VERY LITTLE BIT TO EVALUATE OUR STUDENTS. ALTHOUGH THERE IS A VERY LARGE RANGE FROM STATE TO STATE. WE ALSO FOUND THERE ARE A LOT OF HIDDEN COSTS. OTHER STATES ADD ON TO THIS BECAUSE OF THE STAKES ATTACHED TO TEST SCORES, THE LOCAL DISTRICTS ARE ADDING INTERIM TESTS, BENCHMARK TESTS, DPAT THAT SYSTEMS, TEST PREPARATION MATERIALS. THERE’S A LOT OF OTHER COSTS. WE’RE ACTUALLY SPENDING MORE THAN $50 A PUPIL ON THIS WHOLE SET OF COSTS WHICH COULD SUPPORT THESE KINDS OF HIGH-QUALITY TESTS. BUT WE’RE NOT GETTING HIGH-QUALITY ASSESSMENTS OUT OF THAT SPENDING BECAUSE ALL OF THAT EFFORT IS SPENT GETTING KIDS TO DO BETTER ON THE MULTIPLE CHOICE TESTS. THEY CURRENTLY DON’T MEASURE THE HIGHER ORDER SKILLS. ONE QUESTION WE SHOULD ASK IS COULD WE USE OUR RESOURCES IN NEW WAYS TO ACHIEVE THE HIGHER ASPIRATIONS THAT WE HAVE? THERE’S ANOTHER COST TO THE KINDS OF ASSESSMENTS WE HAVE NOW WHICH DON’T ACTUALLY ASK KIDS TO DEMONSTRATE THEIR KNOWLEDGE OTHER THAN BY BUBBLING IN, WHICH IS A COST TO INSTRUCTION. AND ONE SURVEY FOUND THAT 85% OF TEACHERS FELT THAT THE TESTS WERE DISTORTING THE WAY IN WHICH THEY WERE INSTRUCTING. THEY WERE NOT ALLOWING THEM TO TEACH IN THE WAY THEY WANTED TO TEACH. ONE TEXAS TEACHER PUT IT THIS WAY. I’VE SEEN MORE STUDENTS WHO CAN PASS THE STATE TEST BUT CANNOT APPLY THE SKILLS TO ANYTHING IF IT’S NOT IN A TEST FORMAT. I HAVE STUDENTS WHO CAN DO THE TEST BUT CAN’T LOOK UP SOMETHING IN THE DIFFERENT AND UNDERSTAND DIFFERENT MEANINGS. AS FOR HIGHER QUALITY OF TEACHING, I’M NOT SURE I WOULD CALL IT THAT BECAUSE OF THE PRESSURE, MORE AND MORE TIME IS SPENT PRACTICING THE TESTS AND PUTTING EVERYTHING IN THE TEST FORMAT. AND SO THE QUESTION IS, COULD WE DEVELOP TEST FORMATS THAT WOULD ALLOW KIDS TO REALLY DEMONSTRATE THESE HIGHER ORDER SKILLS AS WELL AS PICK AN ANSWER OUT OF A LIST OF FIVE. AND I THINK THAT THE ANSWER TO THAT QUESTION IS THAT WE’RE LEARNING MORE. WE’RE MORE ABLE TO DEVELOP THESE KINDS OF OPEN-ENDED ASSESSMENTS. THOSE ASSESSMENTS HAVE THE BENEFITS OF SUPPORTING MORE DIAGNOSTIC TEACHING BECAUSE TEACHERS CAN SEE HOW KIDS ARE THINKING AND SUPPORT MORE AMBITIOUS LEARNING. AS A HIGHER EDUCATION PERSON, I WILL SAY WE COMPLAIN ALL THE TIME ABOUT WHETHER THE KIDS KNOW HOW TO ANALYZE AND INVESTIGATE AND RESEARCH AND WRITE. AND THOSE ARE THE KINDS OF THINGS WE’D LIKE TO SEE TEACHERS AND STUDENTS WORKING MORE INTENSIVELY ON THROUGHOUT SCHOOL. AND THE RESEARCH SUGGESTS THAT WE WILL GET THOSE BENEFITS AND HAVE GOTTEN THOSE BENEFITS IN PLACES WHERE STATES AND DISTRICTS HAVE PURSUED THOSE KINDS OF ASSESSMENTS. FOR THAT REASON, YOU CAN SEE BAP IS EVOLVING, INTERNATIONAL BACKCA BACCALAUREATE EXAM. IF WE ORGANIZE THIS ASSESSMENT A LITTLE DIFFERENTLY. IF A SINGLE STATE TRIED TO PUT IF PLACE A HIGH-QUALITY ASSESSMENT WITH OPEN-ENDED ITEMS AND TASKS LIKE THE ONES I’VE DESCRIBED, WE ESTIMATE THAT IT WOULD COST THEM MORE THAN $50 PER PUPIL. BUT IF YOU APPLY ALL OF THE EFFICIENCIES OF JOINING FORCES WITH OTHER STATES, DOING THE WORK TOGETHER, USING THE ADVANTAGES OF TECHNOLOGY THAT HAVE EVOLVED IN REPEAT YEARS, INVOLVING TEACHERS IN THE SCORING, YOU CAN CUT THOSE COSTS BY MORE THAN HALF. AND YOU WOULD END UP SPENDING LESS THAN WHAT WE’RE CURRENTLY SPENDING IN A FRAGMENTED WAY WITH DISTRICTS TRYING TO GRAB INTERIM AND BENCHMARK TESTS TO TRY TO HELP PREPARE KIDS FOR THE STATE TESTS AND ADDING TEST PREP MATERIALS AND SO ON. IF WE WERE TO FOCUS ON HOW TO CREATE A HIGHER QUALITY SYSTEM, AS I MENTIONED, MANY OF THOSE COST-SAVING APPROACHES INCLUDE CONSORTIA WORKING TOGETHER, USES OF TECHNOLOGY, COMPUTER SCORING OF SOME OPEN-ENDED ITEMS WHERE WE ARE LEARNING HOW TO DO THAT EFFECTIVELY. BUT ALSO TEACHER SCORING OF ITEMS. ADDITIONAL READINGS OF SOME ITEMS AND TO READ THE ITEMS WHERE COMPUTERS DON’T KNOW HOW TO SCORE, ALTHOUGH THEY MAY LEARN IN THE FUTURE. AND DOING THAT IN A WAY THAT ALLOWS FORMATIVE AND INTERIM TOOLS TO BE AVAILABLE TO TEACHERS IN AN INTEGRATED SYSTEM WITH THE TESTS THAT ARE GOING TO GIVE INFORMATION TO PARENTS AND POLICYMAKERS AS WELL. AND SO I THINK WE’RE AT A MOMENT WHERE WE CAN MAKE DECISIONS THAT WOULD DRAMATICALLY IMPROVE BOTH THE QUALITY OF ASSESSMENTS AND THE ENGAGEMENT OF EDUCATORS WITH THE ASSESSMENT PROCESS. IF WE CHANGE THE QUESTION FROM WHAT WE’VE OFTEN HEARD, WHICH IS CAN WE AFFORD TO HAVE HIGH-QUALITY ASSESSMENTS TO THE QUESTION I THINK WE NEED TO ASK, WHICH IS CAN WE AFFORD AT THIS POINT NOT TO HAVE HIGHER QUALITY ASSESSMENTS.
>> LINDA, THANK YOU. AND THERE’S A LOT OF QUESTIONS THAT HAVE ALREADY COME IN, AS YOU’VE BEEN MAKING THIS PRESENTATION. DENNIS, OBVIOUSLY THE SUCCESS OF THE COMMON CORE STANDARDS RISES OR FALLS WITH THE PREPARATION OF TEACHERS AND THEIR ABILITY TO GET THE TOOLS THAT THEY NEED TO BE ABLE TO DELIVER THIS IN THE CLASSROOM, TO ALSO RISE AND WHETHER THEY GET THE SUPPORT THEY NEED IN TERMS OF THE DEEPER LEARNING INTENTIONS BEHIND THE COMMON CORE. TO BE ABLE TO COMMUNICATE NOT ONLY CORE ACADEMIC CONTENT KNOWLEDGE BUT THE CORE COMPETENCIES, KITCRITICAL THINKING, SELF-REFLECTION, AND SO ON. PARTICULARLY TO THE CRITICAL ROLE OF ASSESSMENTS MOVING FORWARD.
>> IN TERMS OF THE STATE COMMON CORE FOR STANDARDS, WE HAVE BEEN VERY SUPPORTIVE. WE BELIEVE THAT THEY’VE DONE A GREAT JOB. THERE ARE FEWER AND AS THEY SAY IN SINGAPORE, TEACH LESS, LEARN MORE. NOW THE REAL TEST IS IMPLEMENTATION. AS WE TALK ABOUT ASSESSMENTS, THIS IS REALLY IMPORTANT TO US. A HIGH SCHOOL MATH TEACHER FOR 23 YEARS, I NEVER WENT A WEEK WITHOUT ASSESSING MY STUDENTS. AND DID THEY UNDERSTAND THE MATERIAL? AND WHAT DID I NEED TO DO IF THEY DIDN’T? SO AS LINDA WAS TALKING ABOUT THESE ASSESSMENTS, WE VERY MUCH SUPPORT THE DEVELOPMENT OF ASSESSMENTS. WHAT’S CRITICAL IS WELCH SUPPORT THE INVOLVEMENT OF EDUCATORS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THOSE ASSESSMENTS AS WELL AS THE SCORING. THAT IS A POWERFUL PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT EXPERIENCE TO REALLY DEVELOP GOOD QUESTIONS AND THEN DETERMINE, ARE WE ASKING THE RIGHT THINGS TO KNOW WHETHER THEY UNDERSTAND THOSE STANDARDS? BECAUSE THE PURPOSE OF AN ASSESSMENT IS, AS WE SAY IN THE EDUCATION WORLD, FORMATIVE IS MOST IMPORTANT, I BELIEVE. THE FEEDBACK WE RECEIVE SHOULD BE, NUMBER ONE, TIMELY. YOU DON’T NEXT YEAR PUT IT ON THE STUNDS YOU NO LONGER HAVE. SO THE FEEDBACK NEEDS TO BE TIMELY AND ACTIONABLE. WHAT’S MOST CRITICAL IS NOT ONLY GETTING RESULTS OF THE ASSESSMENTS BUT HAVING THE TIME TO ANALYZE THOSE RESULTS AND THEN DETERMINE WHAT ARE THE STRATEGIES I NEED TO DO IN ORDER TO LEARN. AND THAT’S A VERY CRITICAL COMPONENT OF THE ASSESSMENT THAT AS WE GET BETTER AND BETTER AT GETTING GOOD, TIMELY AND RELEVANT FEEDBACK TO BOTH TEACHERS, STUDENTS AND PARENTS. BUT THAT THE EDUCATORS HAVE THE TIME TO ANALYZE THAT AT DA TO DETERMINE WHAT SHOULD WE BE DOING TO ENSURE THAT EVERY CHILD MEETS THOSE STANDARDS?
>> AND SO LET ME TURN TO GENE WILLHOYT. GENE, YOU’VE DONE JUST ABOUT EVERY JOB IN EDUCATION INCLUDING BEING THE CHIEF STATE OFFICER IN TWO STATES. SO YOU’D KNOW WHAT IT’S LIKE TO HAVE TO MAKE DECISIONS ON BUDGET ITEMS AND WHICH ASSESSMENTS TO USE. OF COURSE, THEN YOU LED SUCCESSFULLY WITH THE NATIONAL GOVERNORS ASSOCIATION THE EFFORT TO NOT ONLY CREATE THE COMMON CORE STANDARDS BUT TO HAVE THEM ADOPT ADOPTED. AND NOW, OF COURSE, WE TURN TO THIS CRITICAL ISSUE OF ASSESSMENTS. THOUGHTS ON THE STUDY, AND PARTICULARLY HOW DO STATES COME TO GRIPS WITH WHAT SHOULD BE AN INCREASED COST FOR THE ASSESSMENT, BUT AS LINDA POINTS OUT, WHAT ARE SOME OF THE OFFSETS THERE AS WELL?
>> THANKS, BOB. I GUESS I WOULD HAVE THREE QUICK RESPONSES. ONE, I THINK THE REPORT IS EXTREMELY TIMELY. I’M A BIT CONCERNED THAT IN THE STATES, WE’RE HAVING CONVERSATIONS ABOUT COSTS ALONE WITHOUT THESE OTHER CONSIDERATIONS THAT BOTH LINDA AND DENNIS HAVE RAISED IN THEIR COMMENTS. SO WE KNOW THAT THE STATES NOW HAVE ADOPTED THE COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS. THEY MADE A COMMITMENT THAT THEY WERE GOING TO ASPIRE TO A MUCH HIGHER LEVEL OF ACCOMPLISHMENT AND PREPARE EVERY CHILD FOR COLLEGE AND CAREER. THIS IS GOING TO PLAY OUT THROUGH ASSESSMENT SYSTEMS. BUT WHAT I HEAR IN MANY STATES IS THAT THESE DECISIONS ARE NOT BEING DEALT WITH THE DEPTH OF INTERACTION AND AMONG ALL THE POLICYMAKERS THAT NEED TO BE INVOLVED. SO I THINK THE REPORT COULD STIMULATE SOME REALLY POSITIVE CONVERSATIONS IN STATE IF WE COULD BRING THE FOLKS TOGETHER IN THE EDUCATION FIELD TO ADDRESS THEM. THE STATES — THERE’S NO DOUBT THAT THE STATES HAVE HAD SOME VERY TOUGH TIMES. IN FACT, MANY OF THEIR BUDGETS IN ASSESSMENT HAVE BEEN CUT OVER THE LAST FEW YEARS, WHICH IS GOING TO MAKE THIS A BIT MORE DIFFICULT, PARTICULARLY IN SOME OF THE STATES THAT HAVE BEEN SPENDING VERY LITTLE MONEY. MANY OF THEM ARE JUST CONSIDERING THE COST FACTOR ALONE. ADDING THESE OTHER ELEMENTS TO THE CONVERSATION ARE GOING TO BE IMPORTANT. SO THAT’S THE FIRST POINT. THE SECOND ONE FOR ME IS THAT I DO THINK THE RESOURCES — I WOULD AGREE WITH LINDA THAT THE RESOURCES ARE IN THE SYSTEM. AND SOMETIMES WE LOOK ONLY AT THAT ONE LINE ITEM IN THE STATE BUDGET FOR THE SUMMIT OF ASSESSMENT. THAT DOES LOOK LIKE A LARGE LINE ITEM IN MANY STATES WHEN YOU PUT FIGURES LIKE 15, $20 MILLION IN A SINGLE LINE ITEM FOR ASSESSMENT, THAT IS A LOT OF MONEY. IT LOOKS LARGE. BUT WHEN YOU COMPARE THAT TO THE AMOUNT OF MONEY BEING SPENT IN THE EDUCATION SYSTEM, IT IS JUST A VERY SMALL AMOUNT. BUT WE OFTEN DON’T CONSIDER THE FACT THAT IN ADDITION TO THAT SINGLE SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT THAT STATES ARE RESOURCING, THE DISTRICTS ARE SPENDING AS MUCH OR MORE MONEY IN THEIR BUDGETS FOR ASSESSMENTS. AND IN TOO MANY CASES, THOSE ASSESSMENTS ARE NOT ALIGNED WITH THE OUTCOMES OF THE STATE ASSESSMENT. AND IN MANY CASES IN AN ATTEMPT TO LOOK AT SHORT-TERM SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEM. THERE IS A LOT OF WASTE IN THAT SYSTEM. SO I DO THINK THE CONVERSATIONS ABOUT HOW THEY COULD AGGREGATE IN EACH OF THE STATES IN MUCH MORE PRODUCTIVE WAYS IS IMPORTANT. THE FINAL POINT I WOULD SAY ON THIS IS I’M NOT SURE I AGREE WITH LINDA’S LAST POINT. WE CAN’T AFFORD TO CONTINUE WHAT WE’RE DOING IN ASSESSMENT. RIGHT NOW WE’RE NOT GETTING RESULTS OUT OF THESE STATE ASSESSMENTS THAT WE NEED FOR STUDENT IMPROVEMENT. WE GET A GENERAL SENSE, AND IT’S REALLY MARGINAL ABOUT HOW MUCH WE CAN RELY ON THE RESULTS. BUT WE’RE GETTING A GENERAL SENSE OF AN INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY OUT OF THESE STATE ASSESSMENTS. WE’RE NOT GETTING THE KIND OF GUIDANCE THAT TEACHERS NEED TO DRIVE-IN STRUKZ INSTRUCTIONAL IMPROVEMENT. WE’RE NOT GUIDING STUDENTS, AND THEREFORE PEOPLE DON’T SEE THE REAL VALUE. AND MY SENSE IS THAT UNTIL PEOPLE BEGIN TO SEE VALUE IN THE ASSESSMENTS, IT’S GOING TO BE DIFFICULT TO HAVE THESE SERIOUS CONVERSATIONS. THE CURRENT ASSESSMENTS, THE STATE SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENTS ARE OVERLOADED. WE’RE ASKING THEM TO DO TOO MANY THINGS THAT THEY WEREN’T DESIGNED TO DO. AND THEY’RE NOT GETTING RESULTS. AND MORE IMPORTANTLY, THEY’RE NOT ALIGNED WITH THESE NEW EXPECTATIONS. THIS IS A REALLY IMPORTANT REPORT. IT OUGHT TO BE TRANSLATED IN EVERY STATE INTO A SERIOUS CONVERSATION ABOUT HOW WE CAN AGGREGATE OUR RESOURCES TO REACH A HIGHER LEVEL OF PERFORMANCE OF ASSESSMENT THAN WE HAVE RIGHT NOW.
>> THANK YOU. I’M GOING TO TEE OFF SOMETHING THAT GENE JUST SAID BECAUSE I THINK IT BEARS REPEATING AGAIN. IF YOU LOOK AT — THE PROBLEM — WHAT I’VE OBSERVED IS THAT OFTEN IN EDUCATION, WE LOOK AT EACH ITEM BY ITSELF AND WHAT ITS COST IS AS OPPOSED TO HOW IT AFFECTS THE OVERALL ENTERPRISE CALLED EDUCATION. SO IF WE’RE JUST SAYING THIS ASSESSMENT’S FOR $20 AND YOU’RE SAYING THEY’RE GOING TO BE $50, AS OPPOSED TO HOW DOES THIS AFFECT THE OVERALL ECOSYSTEM. I KNOW YOU ADDRESSED THIS IN YOUR REPORT. IN FACT, YOU TALKED ABOUT IT SOME IN YOUR POWER POINT ABOUT HOW ASSESSMENTS IN AND OF THEMSELVES SHOULDN’T BE LOOKED AT BUT IN TERMS OF WHAT THEY DO FOR THE ENTIRE SYSTEM.
>> YEAH. AND THAT’S ONE OF THE DIFFERENCES WE SEE OFTEN BETWEEN WHAT WE’RE DOING NOW AND WHAT SOME OF THE HIGH PERFORMING SYSTEMS AROUND THE WORLD AT VARIOUS POINTS AND TIME. AND BY THE WAY, WE’RE SAYING THAT’S WHAT WE’RE SPENDING NOW. WE COULD ACTUALLY SPEND LESS THAN THAT AND GET A MUCH MORE PRODUCTIVE SET OF ASSESSMENTS THAT ARE BETTER INTEGRATED. BUT AMONG THE THINGS THAT YOU WOULD WANT IN A SYSTEM IS YOU WOULD WANT TO BE ABLE TO HAVE KIDS CHALLENGED WITH THESE KINDS OF ROBUST TASKS. YOU’D WANT TO HAVE TEACHERS ENGAGED IN UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARDS THROUGH THAT LENS. YOU’D WANT TO BUILD THAT INTO PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT. AS DENNIS SAID EARLIER IN TERMS OF TEACHERS ENGAGEMENT IN THE DESIGN AND STORING. WE ALSO WANT INTERIM TOOLS CAN SAY I’M TEACHING. YOU KNOW, WRITE A TIME PROBLEM. IDEAS FOR HOW TO UNDERSTAND THE MISCONCEPTIONS THAT ARE LINKED TO THE WAY IN WHICH WE’RE ALSO, AT THE END OF THE DAY, GOING TO ASK KIDS TO SHOW THEIR KNOWLEDGE AUTHENTICALLY. WE NEED TO KNOW HOW, WHAT GOES ON IN CLASSROOMS SO THAT STANDARD SO GUIDES FOR INSTRUCTION ARE LINKED TOGETHER. IF YOU THINK OF THOSE KINDS OF INFLUENCE POINTING IT AND SUPPORTING IT, MOVING IN THE DIRECTION THAT THE STANDARDS CALL FOR, THAT’S AN AMAZING OUTCOME FOR A VERY MODEST INVESTMENT IF WE MAKE THAT INVESTMENT IN A THOUGHTFUL WAY.
>> SO LINDA, I WANT TO PULL THREADS OUT. IN YOUR REPORT, THERE’S DISCUSSION ABOUT ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE PERHAPS BEING A MEANS TO ASSIST WITH THEM AND SCORING THEM AND AT THE SAME TIME A GREATER ROLE FOR TEACHERS. IN SOME WAYS, IS THAT CONTRADICTORY? AND IN TERMS OF THE GREATER ROLE OF TEACHERS, WHAT WOULD THAT LOOK LIKE? THEN, OF COURSE, DENNIS, PLEASE JUMP IN BECAUSE WHAT WILL THAT TAKE IN ORDER FOR TEACHERS — AND IS THAT A ROLE THAT TEACHERS COULD WANT?
>> I WOULD ARGUE THAT THAT’S A ROLE THAT’S COMPLIMENTARY RATHER THAN CONTRADICTORY. IN THAT ONE OF THE THINGS THAT HAS BEEN A BARRIER TO USING THESE MORE OPEN-ENDED KINDS OF TASKS AND ITEMS ON TESTS IN THE PAST WHEN COSTS WERE THE PRIMARY MOTIVATOR WAS THE OLD TECHNOLOGY OF SCAN TRON. IT IS A PIECE OF PAPER AND CAN GO UP INTO A MACHINE THAT CAN READ THE NUMBER. KEK TECHNOLOGY HAS CHANGED A LOT, BUT WE HAVEN’T TAKEN ADVANTAGE OF IT IN THE ASSESSMENT SPACE. SO WE CAN NOW SCORE SOME KINDS OF OPEN-ENDED ITEMS AND TASKS USING, IF YOU KNOW WHAT THE RANGE OF PROPOSITIONS ARE OR THE KINDS OF LOGIC THAT WILL BE PRESENTED, IF YOU KNOW THE LINGUISTICS FEATURES OF ESSAYS THAT YOU WANT TO SCORE, WE ACTUALLY HAVE EXAMPLES NOW OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND COMPUTER-BASED SCORING. SCORING WITH 90% RELIABILITY AS MATCHES WITH HUMANS, THOSE KINDS OF TASKS AND ITEMS. BUT THAT KIND OF TECHNOLOGY ISN’T USABLE EVERYWHERE. YOU KNOW, COMPUTERS CAN’T DO EVERYTHING. THEY CAN’T TELL YOU IF A STUDENT ACTUALLY DID RESEARCH AND USE THE EVIDENCE IN THE RIGHT WAY AND DOING AN ANALYSIS. THAT REQUIRES AT THIS POINT HUMAN EYES. SO I SEE TWO WAYS. NUMBER ONE, HAVING TEACHERS INVOLVED IN SCORING, BEING PAID PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT STIPENDS FOR THAT IS LESS EXPENSIVE THAN HAVING VENDORS DO HUMAN SCORING. IT ACTUALLY TURNS OUT TO BE ECONOMICAL BUT ALSO PRODUCTIVE BECAUSE TEACHERS SAY IT’S OFTEN VERY GOOD FOR PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT. YOU WOULD HAVE THIS HAPPEN IN TWO WAYS. ONE IS THAT EVEN WHEN YOU HAVE COMPUTER SCORING, YOU NEED A CERTAIN AMOUNT OF HUMAN SCORING ON THE SAME ITEM TO CHECK THE RELIABILITY. BUT A TEACHER DOESN’T HAVE TO SCORE 500 ESSAYS IN ORDER TO UNDERSTAND THE STANDARDS. THEY WOULD PROBABLY GET THE BENEFIT OUT OF THAT SCORING AFTER, YOU KNOW, 10 OR 20 ESSAYS. THEY’D GO OH, NOW I UNDERSTAND WHAT WE’RE GETTING AT HERE. WE DON’T WANT TEACHERS TO BE OVERLOADED DOING, YOU KNOW, INTENSIVE SCORING FOR LONG PERIODS OF TIME. THAT’S NOT NECESSARY. SO I SEE THIS AS COMPLIMENTARY. WE USE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE WHERE IT’S USEFUL. WE BACK CHECK IT WITH OTHERS. AND AS MANY TEACHERS AS ARE INVOLVED IN MANY OTHER COUNTRIES. IT’S NOT JUST A FEW PEOPLE GOING OFF TO A MOTEL MARKING PAPERS. IT’S, AS WE SAW IN KENTUCKY AND VERMONT AND MANY OTHER PLACES, TEACHERS COMING TOGETHER ON PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT DAY. AND THEN AFTER THAT BUILDING ON THAT TO TALK ABOUT WHAT DID I LEARN ABOUT HOW TO THINK ABOUT MY CURRICULUM? WHAT DO YOU THINK ABOUT HOW YOU WOULD TEACH A KID TO DO THIS KIND OF ANALYSIS? AND WHEN YOU COMBINE THAT WITH THE SCORING ACTIVITY AND BUILD IT INTO PROFESSIONAL LEARNING, YOU GET MORE BANG FOR THE BUCK, SO TO SPEAK, MORE POWER IN THE EXPERIENCE.
>> BOB, I WOULD SAY JUST TO PICK UP ON THIS ISSUE OF TEACHER SCORING, LINDA MENTIONED IN KENTUCKY, WE DID, PRIOR TO NCLB, HAD A VERY AGGRESSIVE TEACHER SCORING PROCESS UNDER WAY. AND AT FIRST THERE WERE LOTS OF CONCERNS ABOUT WHETHER TEACHERS COULD DO THIS AND WITH RELIABILITY. AND WHAT WE FOUND INITIALLY WAS THAT YES, THERE WAS GREAT VARIABILITY BUNGAMONG TEACHERS. BUT AS WE WENT THROUGH THE PROCESS AS LINDA DESCRIBED IT, THEY BECAME VERY PROFICIENT AT THIS. AND IN FACT, WITH GREAT RELIABILITY. AND WE FOUND THAT THOSE TEACHERS COULD SCORE AS RELIABLY AS FOLKS WHO WERE HIRED BY THE PUBLISHERS. THAT CAME ONLY BECAUSE WE DID EXTENSIVE TRAINING OF FOLKS AS THEY VOLUNTEERED. WE HAD MONITORING PROCESS FOR THE SCORING PROCESS. WE HAD FOLKS WHO WERE READING BEHIND THE SCORES TO MAKE SURE THAT THEY WERE PRODUCING THE KINDS OF RESULTS. AS LINDA SAID, WE GOT SOME WONDERFUL WAYS OF MEASURING STUDENT OUTCOMES THAT WE COULDN’T GET WITH MULTIPLE CHOICE TESTS. STUDENTS WERE WRITING. STUDENTS WERE EXPRESSING THEMSELVES AT A MUCH HIGHER COGNITIVE LEVEL THAN THEY COULD ON PRIOR EXAMS. AND MORE IMPORTANTLY, THE TEACHERS WERE GETTING SOME TREMENDOUS PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT BY PUTTING IN FRONT OF THEM STUDENT WORK AS EXEMPLARS HAVING THE TEACHERS EXAMINE THOSE WORKS, COMPARING THOSE WITH STUDENTS WHO WERE NOT QUITE AS PROFICIENT, BEING ABLE TO GIVE THEM A RUBRIC WHERE THEY COULD MAKE JUDGMENTS AGAINST STUDENT WORK. ALL OF THAT PROVIDED A TREMENDOUS PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITY. I AM CONVINCED IT RESULTED IN A MUCH MORE KNOWLEDGEABLE AND ADEPT WORK FORCE IN KENTUCKY. AND I THINK THE PROGRESS THAT THE STATE MADE IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE LANGUAGE, ARTS AND WRITING IS PROOF THAT IT NOT ONLY PROVIDED A WONDERFUL WAY FOR US TO ASSESS STUDENTS AT A HIGHER LEVEL, IT INCREASED THE CAPACITY OF OUR WORK FORCE TO KNOW WHAT STUDENTS — WHAT WE’RE EXPECTING OF STUDENTS AND KNOW HOW TO ADJUST CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION TO MEET THOSE NEEDS.
>> ONE FOOTNOTE, I SAW THE TECHNICAL REPORT THAT WERE USED IN KENTUCKY UNTIL VERY RECENTLY. AND A NUMBER OF PORTFOLIOS ARE PULLED FOR AUDIT. I THINK IT’S 15% AND RESCORED. THE RELIABILITY IN TEACHER SCORING, THIS IS JUST A FEW YEARS AGO WAS UP TO .99. THAT IS TO SAY YOU CAN’T GET MUCH MORE RELIABLE. THAT IN THE FIELD TEACHERS WERE SCORING AGAINST THE BENCHMARK WITH SUCH HIGH RELIABILITY THAT WHEN YOU WOULD AUDIT IT, THERE WOULD BE ALMOST NO CHANGE IN SCORES. BASED ON PROFESSIONALS DOING IT WHO WERE EXPERTS. SO IT IS POSSIBLE, AS KENTUCKY DID, AS OTHER STATES DID AND OTHER COUNTRIES DO TO GET TEACHERS TO A VERY EXPERT LEVEL TO SCORE STUDENT WORK.
>> YEARS AGO, I USED TO WORK WITH MY FATHER. HE WAS ALL ABOUT DOING IT RIGHT. HE’D OFTEN SAY TO ME IF YOU DON’T HAVE TIME TO DO IT RIGHT, WHEN WILL YOU HAVE TIME TO DO IT OVER? I THINK THAT’S WHAT WE HAVE TO LOOK AT THIS IMPLEMENTATION OF COMMON CORE STANDARDS. WE’VE COME UP WITH AN INCREDIBLE PRODUCT. SIGNED ON BY 46 STATES AND THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. WE’VE NEVER DONE THAT BEFORE IN AMERICA. AND WE NEED TO TAKE THE TIME TO DO IT RIGHT. AS TEACHERS, BY THE WAY, WE DON’T HAVE CLEAN SLATES. THIS ISN’T THE FIRST NEW THING THAT WE’VE BEEN ASKED TO IMPLEMENT. MAYBE A LITTLE SKEPTICAL. AND SO I THINK WHAT TEACHERS WANT MOST IS NUMBER ONE, THEY WANT TO MAKE SURE WE TAKE THE TIME FOR THEM TO COLLABORATE AND UNDERSTAND THE NEW STANDARDS. THEY WANT TO KNOW WHAT’S DIFFERENT ABOUT THESE THAN THE ONES THEY’VE BEEN HELD ACCOUNTABLE TO BEFORE FOR STUDENTS. THAT’S NUMBER ONE. NUMBER TWO, THEY WANT TO HAVE GOOD CONVERSATION WITH THEIR COLLEAGUES TO SAY IF THESE ARE THE NEW STANDARDS, HOW WILL WE KNOW WHETHER OR NOT STUDENTS ASSESS THAT? AND WE’RE DOING A LOT OF WORK. THAT’S WHAT LYNN DID’S TALKING ABOUT. THEN THERE’S ANOTHER PART ABOUT THE TIME. AND THAT IS TEACHERS ARE CREATIVE, INCREDIBLY CREATIVE. AND THEY DON’T ALWAYS WANT CURRICULUM OFF THE SHELF. BUT WHEN YOU KNOW WHAT IT IS YOU WANT STUDENTS TO BE ABLE TO DEMONSTRATE THAT THEY KNOW, THEY KNOW THE ASSESSMENTS THROUGH NOT JUST BUBBLE MULTIPLE CHOICE TESTS. YOU GET TO USE YOUR CREATIVITY TO COME UP WITH EXAMPLES IN CURRICULUM THAT FIT BOTH YOU AS A TEACHER AS WELL AS DIFFERENCES IN CLASSES AND STUDENTS THAT YOU HAVE. SO I THINK THAT IS AN EXCITING TIME. AND WE NEED TO MAKE SURE WE DO IT WELL. BECAUSE WE DON’T GET THESE OPPORTUNITIES VERY OFTEN. AND SO TO HAVE GOOD STANDARDS, TAKE THE TIME TO DEVELOP GOOD ASSESSMENTS. AND THEN YOU GIVE THE TIME FOR COLLABORATION WITH TEACHERS TO REALLY DEVELOP LESSONS AND CURRICULUM THAT MOVE STUDENTS. AND HOW WELL WE DO THAT. BUT IF WE DO IT WELL, OUR STUDENTS ARE THE REAL WINNERS.
>> ANY THOUGHTS ON THE SUPPORT? AND CHARLOTTE E-MAILS US AND ASKS, ANY IDEAS ON THE SUPPORT AND FUNDING THAT WILL BE AVAILABLE FROM TEACHERS TO DEVELOP THESE TYPES OF PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS AND TO SCORE THEM.
>> DUNCAN OFTEN TALKS ON HOW MUCH MONEY WE SPEND ON PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT. WE MAY NOT GET THE RESULTS WE WANT. I THINK EVERYONE IN AMERICAN OUGHT TO SAY ON WHAT WE SPEND ON PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT. MOST ARE TEACHERS AS WELL AS THE STUDENTS. AT THIS TIME IN OUR HISTORY IF THEY’RE NOT SPENDING TIME ON IMPLEMENTATION, THEY NEED TO REASSESS WHY. ARE YOU USING THEM FOR WHAT I BELIEVE IS ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT CHALLENGES WE FACE, AND THAT IS TO DO THIS JOB WELL.
>> AND I THINK BOB, THE OTHER ISSUE HERE IS THAT WE HAVE JUST A PLETHORA OF INDIVIDUAL PROGRAMS THAT ALL HAVE A PIECE OF THEM DEDICATED TO PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT. BUT MANY TIMES TOO NARROWLY DEFINED. I THINK THERE’S GOING TO BE A ROLE FOR DISTRICTS TO LOOK AT BRINGING THOSE RESOURCES TOGETHER AROUND THIS COMMON PURPOSE THAT DENNIS JUST TALKED ABOUT. AND FOR THE STATES AND FOR THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT TO BEGIN TO THINK ABOUT ALLOWING INGING ZRIBLGT INGING DISTRICTS GREATER AUTHORITY IN TERMS OF HOW THEY WOULD USE THEIR PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT MONEY.
>> SO LINDA, WE HAVE AN E-MAIL QUESTION ASKING IF YOU WOULD TALK MORE ABOUT STATES PLANNING TO USE — AND GENE, PLEASE, JUMP IN, AND DENNIS, AS WELL — PLANNING TO USE MORE ROBUST ASSESSMENT SYSTEMS. THIS PERSON IS ASKING WHICH STATE? AND WHAT KIND OF TESTS — THE PURPOSE OF THE TEST. AT THIS POINT I’D BE INTERESTED IN ANY OF YOU, WHO DO YOU THINK ARE SOME OF THE LEADERS MURNG STATES IN THESE TYPES OF ASSESSMENTS?
>> WELL, OF COURSE, IT WILL MOVE US PARTLY DOWN THIS ROAD WITH TASKS THAT ARE MORE ROBUST. THERE ARE STATES THAT ARE GETTING READY TO GO EVEN FURTHER. THERE IS A GROUP OF STATES THAT HAVE COME TOGETHER UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE COUNCIL OF CHIEF GATE SCHOOL OFFICERS. AND GENE WILL BE WORKING SKL INGING WITH AS WELL AS. THAT INCLUDES STATES LIKE NEW HAMPSHIRE AND MAINE THAT HAVE HAD A HISTORY OF BEING INVOLVED IN PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS. CALIFORNIA IS JUST JOINING, WISCONSIN. I’M GOING TO FORGET SOMEONE. VIRGINIA. OHIO IS DOING WORK AROUND PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT. NEW YORK.
>> OREGON.
>> OREGON, THANK YOU. I WANT TO GET OUT OF TROUBLE REAL FAST HERE. I’M SURE I’M MISSING A COUPLE. AND THERE ARE OTHERS WHO ARE NOT PART OF THAT PROJECT WHO ARE ALSO GETTING ORGANIZED TO HAVE KIDS ENGAGED IN EVERYTHING FROM GRADUATION PORTFOLIOS WHERE THEY HAVE TO DEVELOP RESEARCH PAPERS AND SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS AND WRITE THEM TO A STANDARD AND PRESENT THEM TO OTHERS WHO ARE DOING MORE SPECIFIC TASKS THAT WILL DEMONSTRATE KEY COGNITIVE SKILLS AND AKTBLGT ABILITIES INCLUDING COLLABORATION AND TECHNOLOGY. NEW HAMPSHIRE HAVE HAD TO BE ABLE TO EVALUATE THEIR TECHNOLOGY. THEY ARE MOVING INTO A PROFICIENCY-BASED ARENA WHERE SEAT TIME IS NO LONGER GOING TO BE THE DETERMINANT, BUT YOU CAN DEMONSTRATE THAT YOU’VE MASTERED CERTAIN SKILLS AND BE ABLE TO MOVE ON AND MASTER OTHERS. SO WE HAVE A RESURGENT OF INTEREST IN THIS KIND OF INNOVATIVE PRACTICE THAT I THINK WE’RE GOING TO SEE THAT TAKING OFF EVEN MORE BROADLY ACROSS THE COUNTRY. SOME OF THE STATES ARE COMING TOGETHER TO JOINTLY DEVELOP THESE KINDS OF MORE ROBUST PERFORMANCE TASKS.
>> AND IN TERMS OF THE STATES COMING TOGETHER TO DO THIS, THERE’S A LOT OF PRECEDENT FOR THAT, ISN’T THERE? GOING ALL THE WAY BACK TO NEW ENGLAND AND NEW ENGLAND ASSESSMENT CONSORTIUM. I PUT THAT OUT THERE BECAUSE I DON’T WANT ANYONE TO JUMP TO THE CONCLUSION THAT THERE’S SOME SORT OF — THAT THIS IS SOMETHING — HASN’T BEEN A LONG FAN OF TRADITION IN CERTAIN STATES.
>> ABSOLUTELY.
>> YOU HAD A LOT OF WORK WITH THE OFFICERS AS WELL, AND THAT CONTINUES.
>> YEAH, I THINK, YOU KNOW, IN TERMS OF ACTUAL TANGIBLE EVIDENCE, YOU’RE NOT GOING TO SEE AS MUCH RIGHT NOW AS IS REPRESENTATIVE OF THE ACTION THAT’S GOING ON, THE CONVERSATIONS THAT ARE OCCURRING AND THE DEVELOPMENT WORK THAT’S UNDER WAY. WE HAVE SOME OF THE BEST MINDS IN THE COUNTRY THINKING THROUGH HOW WE COULD REDESIGN THE SYSTEMS. AND THAT’S THE KEY. WE’RE NO LONGER GOING TO BE DEPENDENT UPON A SINGLE EXAM THAT WOULD CARRY RESPONSIBILITY FOR ACCOUNTABILITY IN THE SYSTEM. IT IS A BALANCED SYSTEM OF ASSESSMENT. I THINK WE’RE GOING TO SEE GREATER RELIABILITY ON ADJUDICATION AT THE LOCAL LEVEL. I THINK WE’RE GOING TO ASK — YOU’LL SEE MANY EXAMPLES OF WHERE STUDENTS ARE GOING TO BE ASKED TO ACTUALLY PERFORM TASKS THAT ARE RELEVANT TO THEIR INTEREST IN THE CONTENT THAT THEY’RE STUDYING. YOU’RE GOING TO SEE SOME OF THOSE IN OUR STATE ACCOUNTABILITY. YOU’RE GOING TO SEE SOME OF THOSE BECOME A PART OF WHAT COUNTS AS PART OF BEING IMPORTANT FOR STUDENTS TO LEARN.
>> SO WE’VE GOT OUR FIRST TWITTER QUESTION. HOW ARE THE POLICYMAKERS WORKING WITH LOCAL DISTRICTS TO BUY INTO THE CHANGES NEEDED IN EDUCATIONAL THINKING?
>> I OFTEN ANSWER THAT QUESTION IN THAT WE HAVE 46 STATES. AND AMONG THOSE 46 STATES, AS THEY ALL MOVE TOWARD IMPLEMENT, SOME WILL DO IT WELL. SOME POORLY. THEN YOU HAVE STATES IN THE DISTRICTS WHO WILL DO IT ONE OF THREE WAYS. HAVE IT’S AN EEND. WE HAVE TO CHALLENGE POLICYMAKERS ON AND ALWAYS. WHAT WE NEED TO DO IS ESTABLISH EQUITY IN A SYSTEM, THAT EVERY CHILD HAS THE RESOURCES NEEDED TO ACHIEVE THESE TYPE STANDARDS. AND NUMBER TWO, THAT OUR JOB AS POLICYMAKERS, AS EDUCATORS,. I BELIEVE IT WILL TAKE CONVERSATION AS POLICYMAKERS TO UNDERSTAND THE PURPOSE WHAT WE NEED TO DO TO MAKE THIS A JOINT EFFORT FOR ALL OF US INVOLVED.
>> I WOULD JUST SAY, A PERSON WHO’S DEEPLY INTERESTED IN AND WANTS TO GET INVOLVED. I WOULD BE AGGRESSIVE. I NEED TO UNDERSTAND THAT I THINK THE LACK OF INVOLVEMENT IN MANY CASES IS NOT SOMETHING THAT IS PLANNED OR INTENDED. IT IS THE FACT THAT THEY ARE UNDER PRESSURE. THEY SOMETIMES MOVE FORWARD WITHOUT AS MUCH INFORMATION AS POSSIBLE. I WOULD CALL THEM ON THAT AND I WOULD LOOK FOR WAYS FOR LOCAL FOLKS TO BE DEEPLY INVOLVED IN THESE CONVERSATIONS.
>> WHEN I TALK WITH TEACHERS AND KIDS, THE RESPONSE IS SO ENTHUSIASTIC. I THINK THERE’S A PA — THERE’S A RICH TERRAIN FOR INSTRUCTION AND LEARNING AND EXCITING FOR THEM TO PRACTICE. INTERESTED AND IN MANY INDICATIONS VERY ENTHUSIASTIC. DISTRICTS, TO A LARGE EXTENT, ARE BOUGHT IN. I THE WITH TOOLS AND BUILD A CAPACITY FOR THOSE ENERGIZED AT THE LOCAL LEVEL TO BE ABLE TO DO THIS IMPORTANT WORK. I THINK THAT BOTH FARMORMATIVE SCHOOL S SCHOOLS AND AWARDS IN TERMS OF SOME OF THAT TEST ARE PARTS OF THAT IMPORTANT TOOL KIT.
>> THIS QUESTION CAME IN TO EVERYONE. NOTING THAT THE GORDON COMMISSION SEEMED — WHICH JUST RELEASED ITS REPORT A FEW WEEKS AGO. THE GORDON COMMISSION THAT THE ASSESSMENTS DON’T GO FAR ENOUGH TO REFORM STUDENT ASSESSMENTS. ARE THESE A STEP IN THE RIGHT THEX DIRECTION.
>> Caller: THERE WAS A LOT OF INTERESTING WELL INTO THE 21st CENTURY. I THINK THEY ARE A STEP IN THE RIGHT DIRECTION. IN FACT, THERE WAS A SYSTEM RECENTLY, AND I GAVE DIRE FACTS A LITTLE WHILE AGO ABOUT THE CURRENT TESTS AND LOW-LEVEL MEASURES. BY CONTRAST, THE NEW ASSESSMENTS ARE EXPECTED TO INCREASE THE MEASUREMENT OF TWO-THIRDS OF THE ITEMS AND TASKS THAT KIDS WILL BE CONFRONTED WITH. I THINK THEY ARE GOING TO GO DOWN WITH THINKING AND EXPLANATION AND HAVE. WE’LL HAVE TO COME UP IN THIS BROADER SYSTEM THAT GENE WAS JUST TALKING ABOUT. THINGS LIKE COLLABORATING, TO SOLVE A COMPLEX PROBLEM OVER A PERIOD OF TIME. YOU KNOW, COLLECTING AND ANALYZING THE DEEP KNOWLEDGE OF THOSE IN MORE ROBUST PRODUCTS. THESE ARE PART OF THE ASSESSMENT SYSTEMS IN SINGAPORE AND AUSTRALIA AND HUANG DONG AND SOME SPACE WILL GET OUT AND HELP DISTRICTS USE AND DEVELOP THOSE KINDS OF ASSESSMENTS. BECAUSE IF WE WENT TO ACTUALLY EXCEED A COLLEGE AND CAREERS, THEY’RE GOING TO HAVE TO LEARN NOW KNOCK — INTELLECTUALLY CHALLENGING THAN WHAT WE ARE CURRENTLY ABLE TO INCORPORATE IN THE MORE TRA DIGDITIONAL TESTS, THEY WILL BE LESS TRADITIONAL THAN THEY USED TO BE.
>> I WOULD AGREE WITH LINDA ON THIS. IT’S ABSOLUTELY A STEP IN THE RIGHT DIRECTION. THEY ARE GOING TO CHALLENGE STUDENTS COGNITIVELY, AND THEY’RE GOING TO ASK THE RIGHT KINDS OF QUESTIONS THAT WILL PREPARE THEM FOR SUCCESS. THEY’RE GOING TO BE MORE TECHNOLOGICALLY DEPENDENT. THERE’S GOING TO BE SOME WORK AROUND THEM. RESEARCH AND WILL GO ON. I THINK THE BIGGEST DANGER IS SAYING WE EXPECT THE CONSORTIA TO DELIVER THE PERFECT RESULTS AND FOR US TO FREEZE AT THE POINT AT WHICH THEY DO THEIR FIRST DEVELOPMENT. WE NEED TO RESEARCH AND THINK ABOUT WHAT ELSE NEEDS TO BE DEVELOPED THAT MUST GO BEYOND WHAT COULD BE MEASURED IN AN EXTERNAL SUMMIT OF ASSESSMENT.
>> I TOTALLY AGREE WITH THAT, WE’RE GOING IN THE RIGHT DIRECTION. WHAT I SAY IS THAT LIFE, COMPARED TO THE PROGRESS WE’VE MADE COMPARED TO WHERE WE ARE RIGHT NOW, IT’S REALLY A POSITIVE STEP AND IN THE RIGHT DIRECTION. MAKING SURE WE HAVE THE FORMATIVE ASSESSMENTS AVAILABLE, HOW FAR OFF WE ARE RIGHT NOW. SO THE PHRASE IF I’M SEEKING TO ATTEST, THAT MEANS IT’S PROBABLY NOT ALIGNED WITH THE STANDARDS, NOR THE CURRICULUM THAT I’VE BEEN ASKED TO TEACH AS A TEACHER. BUT A PROFESSIONAL DILEMMA. I’M REQUIRED TO GIVE A TEST TO MY STUDENTS, NOR THE CURRICULUM. WHAT WE ODD TO BE DOING IS TEACHING TO THE STANDARDS. WHEN YOU DO THAT, YOU DON’T HAVE TO WORRY ABOUT, ARE YOU TEACHING TO THE TEST? YOU’RE TEACHING WHAT WE BELIEVE. IT’S A POSITIVE STEP AND IT’S SO FAR BEYOND WHAT WE’RE DOING RIGHT NOW. THAT EVEN THOUGH WE’RE NOT. USING THE RESOURCES TO DO IT WELL DEFINITELY WILL MAKE THE EFFORT.
>> THANK YOU. AND YOU ANSWERED ABOUT THREE QUESTIONS.
>> THANK YOU FOR GIVING ME THAT OPPORTUNITY.
>> THIS UNFORTUNATELY LOOKS LIKE THE TYRANNY OF TIME IS ON US. THIS MAY BE THE LAST QUESTION. IT’S A CALIFORNIA PARTICIPANT ASKS, SHOULD DISTRICTS BEGIN TO TRANSITION TO NEW ASSESSMENTS BEFORE THE END OF THE SMART ERER ASSESSMENT FOR FURTHER REFINED.
>> I THINK THE GENERAL REFLECTION FOR THE CALIFORNIANS IN THE AUDIENCE, MY FELLOW CALIFORNIANS, OF WHAT YOU SEE IN THE PILOT IS. SO I DO THINK PEOPLE SHOULD BEGIN THEY SHOULD WORK TOWARDS THE KINDS OF ASSESSMENTS THAT THEY EXPECT WILL BE HAPPENING. THERE IS THE DILEMMA THAT EVERY FEELS. WE’VE GOT THESE OTHER TESTS THEY’RE BEING HELD ACCOUNTABLE TO. BUT I THINK THERE ARE TWO REASONS TO BE LOOKING FORWARD RATHER THAN BACKWARD. ONE IS THAT IF YOU TEACH, THERE’S A GOOD LIKELIHOOD THAT KIDS’ COGNITIVE ABILITY TO REASON AND UNDERSTAND WILL HELP THEM EVEN WITH THE OLD TESTS. THERE’S SOME EVIDENCE ABOUT THAT. AND THE SECOND IS THAT I THINK THERE’S AN AWARENESS IN THE POLICY COMMUNITY EFFORT. A LOT OF CONVERSATION ABOUT IF HERE IN WASHINGTON. AMONG LEADERS HERE. AND IN THE STATE IS LOOKING FORWARD WE WANT PEOPLE TO BEGIN TO DO. AND THAT THE POLICY COMMUNITY IS GOING TO BEGIN TO THINK ABOUT THE WAYS THAT IT MUST EASE THIS TRANSITION TRANSITION, I THINK ESPECIALLY IN CALIFORNIA, FEEL COMFORTABLE THAT POLICYMAKERS AND THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AND THE STATE BOARD ARE KEENLY AWARE OF THIS DILEMMA AND HAVE BEEN ENCOURAGING ABOUT PEOPLE TAKING THAT STEP FORWARD.
>> GENE, ANY THOUGHTS ON THAT?
>> I GUESS THE ONLY ADDITION, I WOULD AGREE WITH LINDA THAT I DON’T THINK YOU CAN LOSE BY MOVING FORWARD. AND I THINK IN TERMS OF STATE ACTIONS IN THE SHORT TERM, WE’RE ALREADY SEEING STATES REVIEW THEIR EXISTING EXAMS AND TO ELIMINATE ITEMS THAT ARE NOT ALIGNED WITH THE COMMON CORE STARPDS. AND ALSO BEGIN TO CHANGE THE NATURE OF THE QUESTIONS THAT ARE BEING ASKED, MORE OPEN-ENDED, MORE STUDENT EXPRESSIONAL WRITING. SO THE STATES ARE MOVING IN THIS DIRECTION EVEN BEFORE THEY ADMINISTER THE FIRST SMARTER BALANCED TEST.
>> LINDA — AND IF I COULD GIVE YOU THE LAST WORD. THE NAME OF THE REPORT ONCE AGAIN, AND CAN FOLKS GO TO THE S.C.O.P.E. WEBSITE, AND WHAT WOULD THAT BE?
>> YOU CAN GO TO EDPOLICY/STANFORD.EDU. GOOGLE IN S.C.O.P.E., YOU’LL FIND IT. IT’S CALLED DEVELOPING ASSESSMENTS OF DEEPER LEARNING: THE COSTS AND BENEFITS OF TESTS THAT HELP STUDENTS LEARN.
>> I WANT TO MAKE A PREDICTION, AND I THINK IT WILL BE ONE OF THE MOST DISCUSSED REPORTS IN EVERY STATE LEGISLATURE AND SEAs AS WELL AS MANY DISTRICTS DURING THE NEXT YEAR BECAUSE I THINK YOU ALL WORK ON THIS EVERY DAY, EACH OF YOU. BUT THIS IS CERTAINLY ONE OF THE MOST CRITICAL AREAS AND WHERE SO MANY OF THE QUESTIONS COME UP. I WANT TO THANK VERY MUCH OUR PARTICIPANTS. I WANT TO FIRST THANK THE WILLIAM & FLORA HUELET FOUNDATION FOR MAKING THIS WEBINAR POSSIBLE AND PARTICULARLY LINDA, DENNIS AND GENE FOR THE INFORMATIVE AND THOUGHT-PROVOKING DISCUSSION. AND FROM THE ALLIANCE FOR EXCELLENT EDUCATION, WE WANT TO THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR JOINING US. THIS WILL BE ARCHIVED AND SHOULD BE AVAILABLE WITHIN TWO BUSINESS DAYS ON THE ALLIANCE WEBSITE. AND WE INVITE YOU TO CONTINUE TO FOLLOW THE ALLIANCE AND THIS DISCUSSION. IF YOU HAVE ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS, PLEASE SEND THEM TO US. WE MAY PICK A COUPLE OF THE ONES THAT REFLECT THE LARGEST BODY AND REFER THEM TO YOU IF YOU WOULDN’T MIND ANSWERING THEM. YOU’VE GENERATED A LOT OF INTEREST AND DISCUSSION. AS I SAY, I’M GOING TO HEAR THIS REPORT CITED, THANK GOODNESS, IN A LOT OF INTERACTIONS TAKING PLACE IN EVERY STATE. SO FROM THE ALLIANCE FOR EXCELLENT EDUCATION, THANK YOU VERY MUCH.

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